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PSY100Y5 (787)
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Chapter 3

Chapter 3 book notes

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Dax Urbszat

Oct62003 CHANAPS Notes From Reading C HAPTER3: THE B IOLOGICALBASIS OFB EHAVIOR I. Communication in the Nervous System A. Nervous Tissue: The Basic Hardware 1. 2 Major Categories for Cells in Nervous System a. Glia cells found throughout the nervous system that provide structural support and insulations for neurons. Help maintain the chemical environment of the neurons b. Nuerons- the individual cells in the nervous sytem that receive, integrate, and transmit info. Permit communication (mostly within other neurons) only sensory organs revieve signals from outside the nervous system. 2. Parts of a Neuron: a. Soma (cell body) contains the nucleus and muc of the chemical machinery common to most cells. b. Rest of neuron dedicated to handling info. c. Dendrites parts of the neuron that are speacialized to receive info. d. Axon info travels from dendrites to axon, which are the long thin fiber that transmit signals away from the soma to other neurons or muscles and glands. e. Myelin sheath many axons wrapped in cells with a high concentration of myelin. Insulating material, from glial cells, that encases some neurons. Speeds up transmissiono of info. i. Multiple Scleroris due to deterioration of myelin sheath. f. Terminal buttons small knobs that secrete chemicals called neurotransmitters. At end of axons in clusters. g. Synapse point at which neurons connect. Junction where info is transmitted from one neuron to another. B. The Neural Impulse: Using Energy to Send Information 1. The Nueron at Rest: A Tiny Battery a. Neural impulse is a complex electrochemical raction. b. The resting potential of a neuron is its stable, negative charge when the cell is inactive. (Potential Energy of a Nueron). 2. The Action Potential brief shift in a nuerons electrical charge that travels along an axon. a. Absolure Refractory Period the minimum length of time after an action potential during which another action potential can not begin (down time) 3. The All or None Law a. Either the neuron fires or it doesnt, and its action potentials are always the same. i.e. weaker stimuli dont produce smaller action potentials. b. However, they can change the rate of action potentials. A stronger stimulus will make for more rapid action potentials in a shorter period of time. C. The Synapse: Where Nuerons Meet 1. Sending Messages: Chemicals as Couriers 15 www.notesolution.com
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