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Chapter 10

Chapter 10 book notes

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Dax Urbszat

Jan62004 CHANAPS Notes From Reading C HAPTER 10: M OTIVATION& E MOTION I. The Motivation of Hunger and Eating A. Introduction 1. Motives are the needs, wants, interests and desires that propel people in certain directions. 2. Motivation involves goal-directed behavior. 3. There are 2 types of motivation biological motives that originate in biological needs (i.e. hunger), and social motives, that originate in social experiences (i.e. achievement). 4. People share the same biological needs, but their social needs (and their strengths) may vary. B. Biological Factors in the Regulation of Hunger 1. Brain Regulation experience of anger is controlled in the brain, specifically 2 areas in the hypothalamus. a. Hypothalamus tiny structure involved in the regulation of a variety of biological needs related to survival. b. Lateral hypothalamus (LH) & the ventromedical nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) regulate hunger, but not the key elements. c. 3rd area of hypothalamus, known as the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) may play role in hunger regulation. d. Contemporary theories of hunger focus more on neural circuits rather than anatomical centers of the brain. 2. Glucose and Digestive Regulation a. Glucose a simple sugar that is an important source of energy. i. Mayer proposed that hunger is regulated by the rise and fall of blood glucose levels. ii. Glucostic Theory proposed that fluctuations in blood glucose level are monitored by glucostats neurons sensitive to glucose in the surrounding fluid. b. Digestive system nerves send signals that inhibit further eating by monitoring stretching of stomach walls or carry messages that depend on how rich in nutrients the contents of the stomach are. 3. Hormonal Regulation appear to contribute to regulation of hunger. a. Insulin hormone secreted by the pancreas which much be present for cells to extract glucose from the blood. b. Leptin - produced by fat cells throughout the body and released into the bloodstream. High levels of fat produce high levels of leptin, and circulates through the bloodstream, providing the hypothalamus with info about the bodys fat stores. C. Environmental Factors in the Regulation of Hunger 1. Hunger is a biological need, but eating may in some instances be social, and influenced by 3 factors learned prefshabits, food related cues, and stress. 2. Learned Prefs and Habits People from different cultures display very different patterns of food consumption. a. Prefs for high fat foods. 17 www.notesolution.com
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