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Chapter 3

PSY220Ch.3 Social Beliefs.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY220H5
Professor
Dax Urbszat

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PSY230 Chapter 3 Social Beliefs and Judgments This Chapter describes how we perceive, judge and explain our social worlds PERCIEVING OUR SOCIAL WORLDS  Striking research reveals the extent to which our assumptions and prejudgments can bias our perceptions, interpretations and recall  The overarching point: we respond not to reality as it is but to reality as we construe it Priming: activating particular associations in memory  Our memory is a web of associations, and priming is the awakening or activating of certain associations  Priming effects surface when the stimuli are presented subliminally – too briefly to be perceived consciously. What’s out of sight may not be completely out of mind. PERCIEVING AND INTERPRETING EVENTS - people everywhere perceive media and mediators as biased against their position Kulechov effect: film makers control people’s perceptions of emotion by manipulating the setting in which they see a face - When we say something good or bad about someone else, people will end to associate that trait with us – a phenomenon they called – spontaneous trait transference - Call someone a jerk and folks may later construe YOU as one - Describe someone as sensitive loving and compassionate and you may seem more so - Our beliefs and schemas are so important; they shape our interpretation of everything BELIEF PERSEVERENCE Belief Perseverance: persistence of your initial conceptions, as when the basis for your belief is discredited but an explanation of why the belief might be true survives o Experiments show that the more we examine our theories and explain how they might be true, the more closed we become to information that challenges our belief PSY230 o However, explaining why an opposite theory might be true reduces are eliminates belief perseverance CONSTRUCTING MEMORIES OF OURSELVES AND OUR WORLDS “ Science has proven the accumulated experience of a lifetime is preserved perfectly in your mind”  Psychological research has proved the opposite  Rather we construct memories at the time of withdrawal, we can easily revise our memories to suit our current knowledge Misinformation effect: incorporating misinformation into one’s memory of the event, after witnessing after witnessing an event and then receiving misleading information about it. (Elizabeth Loftus) Ex. They recall a yield sign as a stop sign RECONSTRUCTING PAST ATTITUDES  People whose attitudes have changed often insist that they have always felt much as they now feel  People often exhibit rosy retrospection- they recall mildly pleasant events more favorable then they experienced them  With any positive experience, some of the pleasure resides in the anticipation, some in the actual experience, and some in the rosy retrospection RECONSTRUCTING PAST BEHAVIOUR  We under report bad behavior and over report good behavior  Our memories reconstruct other sorts of past behaviors SUMMING UP” PERCIEVING OUR SOCIAL WORLDS 1. Our schemas and preconceptions strongly influence how we interpret and remember events. In a phenomenon called priming, people’s judgments have striking effects on how they perceive and interpret information 2. Other experiments have planted judgments or false ideas in people’s minds after they have been given information. These experiments reveal that as before the fact judgments, bias our perceptions and interpretations, so after the fact judgments bias our recall 3. Far from being a repository for facts about the past, our memories are actually formed when we retrieve them; they are subject to strong influence by the attitudes and feelings we hold at the time of retrieval PSY230 JUDGING OUR SOCIAL WORLDS INTUITIVE JUDGEMENT Intuition: immediately knowing something without reasoning or analysis The Power of Intuition  We know more then we know we know  Our thinking is partly controlled and partly automatic Controlled processing: “explicit” thinking that is deliberate, reflective, and conscious Automatic processing: “implicit” thinking that is effortless, habitual and without awareness roughly corresponds to “intuition” (occurs off-stage) Examples of Automatic thinking: 1. Schemas: how we interpret certain situations 2. Emotional reactions Info from eyes ears  thalamus  emotional control center (amygdala)  before the thinking cortex has had a chance to intervene 3. Expertise OVERCONFIDENCE Overconfidence phenomenon: the tendency to be more confident than correct – to overestimate the accuracy of one’s belief o Incompetence feeds overconfidence Confirmation bias: the tendency to search for information that confirms one’s preconceptions o People tend not to seek information that might disprove what they believe o Prompt feedback successfully reduces the overconfidence bias o To reduce “planning fallacy” overconfidence, people can be asked to “unpack” a task- to break it into its subcomponents – and estimate the time required for each o Third way to reduce overconfidence is to ask ppl to think of one good reason why their judgments might be wrong HEURISTICS: MENTAL SHORTCUTS Heuristic: a thinking strategy that enables quick, efficient judgments  ex. for
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