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Chapter 11

PSY220 Textbook Notes Chapter 11- Stereotypes, Prejudice and Discrimination

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Emily Impett

Chapter 11: Stereotyping, prejudice and Discrimination Stereotypes - belief that certain attributes are characteristics of members of a particular group (BELIEF) Prejudice - negative attitude or response towards a certain group or individual (ATTITUDE) Discrimination - unfair treatment of members of a particular group based on their membership in that group (BEHAVIOUR) Modern Racism - prejudice directed at other racial groups that exist along side rejection of explicitly racist beliefs Priming - procedure used to increase the accessibility of a concept of schema (e.g., stereotype) Realistic group conflict Theory - theory that group conflict, prejudice, and discrimination are likely to arise over competition between groups for limited resources Ethnocentrism - glorifying one’s own group while vilifying other groups Minimal Group Paradigm - an experimental paradigm in which researchers create groups based on arbitrary and seemingly meaningless criteria and then examine how the members of these “minimal” groups are inclined to behave to one another (“us vs them”) Social Identity Theory - theory that a persons self concept& esteem is not only derived from personal identity/accomplishments but also from the status/ accomplishments of the groups that the person belongs n Basking in reflected glory - tendency for people to take pride in the accomplishments of those with whom they are in some way associated (eg. when fans identify with a winning team) Frustration Aggression Theory - Theory that states an idea that frustration leads to aggression Outgroup Homogeneity Effect - tendency for people to think that within-group similarity is much higher for out groups than for ingroups Paired Distinctiveness - pairing of two distinctive events that stand out even more because they co-occur Subtyping - explaining away exceptions to a given stereotype by creating a subcategory to that can be expected to differ from the group in total Stereotype Threat - people’s fear of confirming the stereotypes that others have regarding a group of which they are a member Characterizing Intergroup Bias Modern Racism: Often our beliefs and what is socially acceptable conflict. (For example, it is NOT okay to discriminate, while it was socially acceptable in the past). Now if there is a situation where it offers no “justification: or disguise of the discrimination, people’s responses will align with there egalitarian values; HOWEVER if the situation has a “Rational” explanation available, modern racism will emerge. Study: Job application Study White participants would evaluate black and white applicants to college. Participants too a “Attitudes towards blacks” Scale - High scores: Prejudiced towards blacks - Low scores: NOT prejudiced towards blacks Three “types” of applications - Clearly exceptional: High marks& high SAT - Clearly below par: Low marks& Low SAT - Mixed credentials: High marks& Low SAT or vice versa Results: High and low prejudice participants rated white and black applicants the same when they either had “clearly exceptional/ below par” results. (No excuse to not take in) On the other hand, the prejudiced people rated black applicants who had mixed credentials lower that non-prejudiced people. (Has a “rational” explanation) Benevolent Racism/ Sexism Benevolent Sexism - chilvarlrous ideology that offers protection and affection to women who embrace conventional roles Hostile sexism - dislike of women who are too “strong/powerful”, not going with the stereotype of women) Ambivalent (mixed feelings) Basically, if you fufull the characteristics of your image, you will be treated positively; if you go against it (deviate from it) you would be treated with hostility Measuring attitudes about groups The Implicit Association Test (IAT) - technique for revealing non conscious prejudices towards particular groups - have a series of words, and you would have to click if it is “strong” or “weak” and measures the response time. If your response time is longer, it means there is conflict in your mind about what you think and what is socially acceptable to pick - can measure implicit prejudice - assess strength of associations between concepts by measuring response times - eg. on avg, people should be faster t associate black faces with negative words and white faces with positive words Economic Perspective - identifies the roots of intergroup hostility in competing interests that sets many groups apart from another Realistic Group Conflict Theory: when there is less resources to go around or when people are scared of losing what they have, competition intensifies Study: Robbers Cave - if you randomly assign people to groups and place then into conflict, ethnocentrism will appear - 22 boys recruited for a 3 week summer camp - boys were divided into two groups and brought in separately to different parts of the camp (they did not know of each other’s existence) Phase one: each group went though group unifying games to foster group unity ( they still did not know of each others existence) - leader of the group would be “effective initiators” - ones who made suggestions that others accepted Phase two: the two groups were brought together into a competitive environment (tournament) would have a series of games to compete for the final prize. the boys started becoming more and more competitive (e.g., name calling, fights, vandalism) - leader of the group became boys who were more athletic/aggressive Phase three (reducing conflict through common goal): the two groups were brought together in a non-competitive environment, and did non-competitive activities that worked on a superordinate (Common) goal (e.g.. fix camp’s water supply, push food truck out of mud etc). Eventually, as they were all working towards a common goal, the name calling stopped and they started forming friendships btwn each group. They ended up wanting to return home on the same bus and the winning group even shared their $5 that they won to buy ice cream for ALL the boys at the rest stop. US Military: they have successfully integrated different racial and ethnic groups together as they are taught that they are all working together to protect USA. (Shared goal of defending the nation) Study: Jigsaw Classroom - in a classroom setting is is highly competitive, as students are raising their hands wanting to be picked by the teacher. The jigsaw study aims to find a way to reduce the competitiveness into a cooperative one to reduce pre justice (Think back on Robbers cave) - Children are divided into small groups (ethnically/racially equally divided). Each student is responsible for learning a part to an entire lesson, and they can ONLY learn their part, then teach it to their group mates. In order to fully learn the entire lesson, they have to work together. Results: decreased prejudice and stereotyping towards different race and ethnicity, increase for liking for group, higher self esteem, Motivational Perspective - psychological needs and wishes that cause intergroup conflict Minimal Group Paradigm Study - participants are split into meaningless taste (ig, estimating how many beans there are) then they are told that they are split into groups of “underestimate's” and “over estimators”, when in reality, they were randomly assigned in to the groups. They do not get to see or meet any of they're group mates or know of them, so stripping it down to the “bare minimum” then they would rate the people, who can only identify themselves with what group they are in and number. Result: Majority of the members, would be interested in
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