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Chapter 11

Textbook Chapter 11 - Stereotyping, Prejudice, and Discrimination

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Emily Impett

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Notes From Reading: C HAPTER 11:STEREOYPING ,PREJUDICE ,AND D ISCRIMINATION (407-452) Introduction - Despite such progress, it is abundantly clear that the human tendencies to stereotype, harbor prejudice and engage in discrimination are still with us - Economic Perspective – identifies the roots of much intergroup hostility in the competing interests that set many groups apart from one another - Motivational Perspective – emphasizes the psychological needs and wishes that lead to intergroup conflict - Cognitive Perspective – traces the origin of stereotyping to the same cognitive processes that allow people to categorize items into distinct classes o Takes into account the frequent conflict between people’s consciously held beliefs and values and their quick, reflexive reactions to members of specific racial, ethnic, occupational or other demographic groups Characterizing Intergroup Bias - Stereotypes – Beliefs that certain attributes are characteristic of members of particular groups o Involves thinking about a person not as an individual, but as a member of a group, and projecting what (you think) you know about the group onto your expectations about the individual - Prejudice – A negative attitude or affective response toward a certain group and its individual members o Prejudice involves prejudging others because they belong to a specific category - Discrimination – Unfair treatment of members of a particular group based on their member in that group o Involves negative or harmful behavior directed towards members of particular groups - Stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination refer to the belief, attitudinal, and behavioral components, respectively, of negative intergroup relations - Ingroup favouritism can arise in the absence of outgroup enmity Modern Racism - Modern Racism – Prejudice directed at other racial groups that exists alongside rejection of explicitly racist beliefs - Job application study: white participants evaluated black and white applicants to college o Participants who were high or low in explicit prejudice toward blacks rated white and black applicants the same when the applicants excelled on all pertinent dimensions or were below par on all dimensions o When The prejudiced participants rated the black applicants less favorably than did the unprejudiced participants o Prejudiced participants’ discriminatory responses could be defended as nondiscrimatory (could be hidden) by claim in that the dimension on which the black applicants fell short were more important than those on which they excelled Benevolent Racism and Sexism - Many of our “isms” (racism, sexism, ageism) are ambivalent, containing both negative and positive features - A study found that benevolent sexism often coexists with hostile sexism o Benevolent sexism is a chivalrous ideology that offers protection and affection to women who embrace conventional roles o Hostile sexism is a dislike of women who are viewed as usurping men’s power - Those who hold ambivalent attitudes tend to act positively toward members of outgroups only if the fulfill their idealized image of what such people should be like Notes From Reading: C HAPTER 11:S TEREOYPING ,P REJUDICE ,AND D ISCRIMINATION (407-452) o Those who deviate tend to be treated with hostility Measuring Attitudes about Groups - Surveys of people’s attitudes toward certain groups cannot always be trusted, because respondents may not think it’s acceptable to express what they really feel or because what people report verbally is only part of their stance toward members of other groups - The Implicit Association Test (IAT) – A technique for revealing nonconscious prejudices toward particular groups o A series or word and/or pictures are presented on a computer screen, and the respondent is told to press a key with the left hand if the picture or word conforms to one rule and to press another key with the right hand if it conforms to another rule o Greenwald and Banaji argued that respondents would be faster to press one key for members of a particular group and words stereotypically associated with that group than to press the same key for members of the group and words that contradict the stereotype associated with that group o There is evidence that IAT responses do correlate with other measures of prejudice - Priming and Implicit Prejudice o Priming – A procedure used to increase the accessibility of a concept or schema (for example, a stereotype) o Priming methods have shown that people often have subtle prejudices against various target groups that they would steadfastly deny having o An implicit measure of prejudice can thus be derived by comparing a person;s average reaction time to positive and negative words preceded by faces of members of the target category The Economic Perspective - According to the economic view, groups develop prejudices about one another and discriminate against one another when they compete for material resources Realistic Group Conflict Theory - Realistic Group Conflict Theory – A theory that group conflict, prejudice, and discrimination are likely to arise over competition between groups for limited resources o This theory predicts, correctly, that prejudice and discrimination should increase under conditions of economic difficulty - Realistic group conflict theory also specifies some of the ways that conflict between groups is likely to play out o First of all, ethnocentrism (glorifying one’s own group while vilifying other groups) develops The Robbers Cave Experiment - Twenty-two fifth-grade boys were take to Robbers Cave State Park in southeastern Oklahoma (The boys chosen were “average” in nearly every respect) - Boys were divided into two groups of 11 (none knew each other) and neither group even knew of the other’s existence – initially - Competition and Intergroup Conflict o First phase, the two groups independently engages in activities for group unity o Second phase, the Eagles and Rattlers were brought together for a tournament and were told that each member of the winning team would receive a medal and a highly coveted pocket knife o Each boy would call names to the opposite group, and Eagles stole and burned the Rattlers’ flag Notes From Reading: C HAPTER 11:S TEREOYPING ,PREJUDICE ,AND DISCRIMINATION (407-452) - Reducing Intergoup Conflict through Superordinate Goals o The two groups were brought together in various noncompetitive settings to see whether their hositility would dissipate – it did not o Investigators contrived to confront the boys with a number of crises that could be resolved only through the cooperative efforts of both groups – I.e. water supply o Superordinate Goals – Goals that transcend the interest o any one group and that can be achieved more readily by two or more groups working together o When study ended, the boys wanted everyone to return on the same bus - The Robbers Cave experiment offers several important lessons o Neither differences in background, appearance, prior histories of conflict are necessary for intergroup hostility to develop o Competition against “outsiders” often increases group cohesion o To reduce the hostility that exist between certain groups, policy markers should think of ways to get them to work together to fulfill common goals Evaluating the Economic Perspective - The economic perspective “works” in the sense that it fits nicely with what we see around us as the successes and failures of intergroup relations - According the Sherif’s findings, for many students, minorities and majority alike, the college years are the first time they have had close and sustained contact with members of other ethnic groups The Motivational Perspective - Intergroup hostility can develop even in the absence of competition - The existence of group boundaries among any collection of individuals, then, can be sufficient to initiate group discrimination The Minimal Group Paradigm - Minimal Group Paradigm – An experimental paradigm in which researchers create groups based on arbitrary and seemingly meaningless criteria and then examine how the members of these “minimal groups” are inclined to behave toward one another o Participants perform trivial tasks and are then divides into two groups on the basis of their responses (in reality, assigned randomly to groups) - Majority of the participants are interested more in maximizing the relative gain for members of their ingroup than in maximizing the absolute gain for their ingroup - The us/them distinction, once formed, can have enormous implications ß Social Identity Theory - Social Identity Theory – A theory that a person’s self-concept and self-esteem derive not only from personal identity and accomplishments but also from the status and accomplishments of the various groups to which the person belongs - Boosting the Status of the Ingroup o Since our self-esteem is based in part on the status of the various groups to which we belong, we might be tempted to do what we can to boost the status and fortunes of these groups and their members o People who take strong pride in their group affiliations are more prone to ingroup favoritism when placed in a minimal group situation - Basking in Reflected Glory o Basking in Reflected Glory – The tendency for people to take pride in the accomplishments of those with whom they are in some way associated
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