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Chapter 5

PSY220 chapter 5 textbook notes

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY220H5
Professor
Dax Urbszat
Semester
Fall

Description
CHAPTER 5 PERSUASION -persuasion: the process by which changes in belief, attitudes or behaviours are induced by a message -culture-shaping usually occurs top-down -content of the message that elicits good/bad -bad  propaganda -good  education  factually based and less coercive -however in general, education when we believe it and propaganda when we don’t WHAT PATHS LEAD TO PERSUASION? -a persuasive message must clear several hurdles before eliciting an action The central route -central route to persuasion: occurs when interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favourable thoughts  weak arguments will lead the person to counter-argue The peripheral route -peripheral route to persuasion: occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues (ex: speaker’s attractiveness) - without much thinking, focusing on cues that trigger acceptance -familiar statements are more persuasive than new statements that have the exact same meaning -produces superficial, temporary attitude changes Different routes for different purposes -central route processing can lead to longer lasting changes than peripheral route processing -a changed attitude is more likely to last in those who think deeply rather than superficially WHAT ARE THE ELEMENTS OF PERSUASION? -4 elements: -the communicator -the message -how the message is communicated -the audience Who says? The communicator -who is saying something affects how an audience receives it -credibility -credibility: believability....a credible communicator is perceived as both expert and trustworthy -sleeper effect: delayed impact of a message; occurs when we remember the message but forget a reason for discounting it -perceived expertise -appearing smart by saying things the audience agrees with -being introduced as someone who is knowledgeable -appear credible by speaking confidently...appear less competent/credible if you hesitate -perceived trustworthiness -trustworthiness higher if the audience believes the communicator isn’t trying to persuade them -ex: assume when eavesdropping on someone who is unaware, assume they are telling the truth to whoever they are talking to. Why else would they have a reason to lie? -those who argue against their own self-interest are perceived more sincere -Miller found that when people talk fast their trustworthiness and credibility increases and they become more persuasive -gain credibility if they appear to be expert and trustworthy -attractiveness and liking -attractiveness: having qualities that appeal to an audience -an appealing communicator (usually someone similar to the audience) is most persuasive on matters of subjective preference -more likely to respond to those we like -may open us up to communicator’s arguments (central route persuasion) or go the peripheral route persuasion route and trigger positive associations when we see the product later -attractiveness has several forms: -physical  especially emotional ones, arguments are more influential coming from someone we consider attractive -similarity we like people who are like us and are influenced by them -when choice has to do with matters of personal value/taste/way of life, similar communicators have the most influence -when choice has to do with judgments of fact, confirmation of belief by a dissimilar person does more to boost confidence  provides a more independent judgment What is said? The message content -reason versus emotion -depends on the audience -well-educated/analytical people are more responsive to rational appeals than those who are less educated/analytical -thoughtful, involved audiences are more responsive to reasoned arguments  central route -disinterested audiences more affected by how much they like the communicator  peripheral route -depends on how initial attitudes were formed -formed mainly through emotion  persuaded more by later emotional appeals -formed mainly through reason  persuaded more by later intellectual arguments -the effect of good feelings -messages more persuasive through association with good feelings -those in unhappy moods think more before reacting and are less easily swayed by weak arguments -the effect of arousing fear -often, the more scared the person, the more they respond -fear-arousing communications increases a person’s detection behaviours -work better when trying to prevent a bad outcome than when trying to promote a good outcome -when fear pertains to a pleasurable activity, result not behavioural change but rather denial -discrepancy -the effect of a large or small discrepancy depends on whether the communicator is credible -those involved deeply tend to accept only a narrow range of views -advocate an extreme view if your audience isn’t as concerned with your issue and if you are a credible authority -one-sided versus two-sided appeals -one-sided appeal worked better on those who already agreed where a two-sided appeal that acknowledges opposing arguments was most effective on those who initially opposed -two-sided appeal more persuasive and enduring if people are (or will be) aware of opposing arguments -one-sided message apparently stimulates an informed audience to think of counter-arguments and see the communicator as biased -positive persuasion works best for optimists where negative persuasion works best for pessimists -primacy versus recency -primacy effect: information presented first usually has the most influence if everything else is equal -recency effect: information presented last sometimes has the most influence. Not as common as primacy effect -forgetting creates the receny effect when enough time separates the two messages and when the audience is required to provide a response soon after the second message -primacy effect usually occurs when the two messages are back to back followed by a time gap Primacy effect predicted: |message 1||message 2| --time--> response: message #1 accepted Recency effect predicted: |message 1| --time--> |message 2|response: message #2 accepted How is it said? The channel of communication -channel of communication: the way the message is delivered (ex: face to face, writing, media, etc) -active experience or passive reception? -spoken appeals not necessarily more persuasive -exposure to unfamiliar stimuli breeds liking and repetition can make things more believable -saying that a claim is not true (even when the discounting is presented among other true and false claims) can lead older adults to misremember it as true  they forget the discounting and their lingering familiarity with the claim makes them still think it’s true -repetition of a statement increases its fluency which increases believability -rhyming also increases fluency -persuasion decreases as the significance of the issue increases -personal versus media influence -major influence on us is our contact with people Ex: divided individuals not intending to vote for the revision into 3 categories: 1) those exposed to only what they say in the media 19% voted in favour, 2) received 4 mailings in support of the revision 45% voted in favour, 3) visited personally and given the appeal face to face 75% voted in favour -media influence: the two-step flow -two-step flow of communication process by which media influence often occurs through opinion leaders who then influence others -main goal of marketers and politicians is to influence the opinion leaders and trendsetters (the influentials) -opinion leaders are those individuals perceived as experts  could even be as simple as anyone who has chosen to absorb information and then inform their family/friends -ex: mother go to son for advice on new computer  son gets his ideas from printed page  sell son and you sell mother as well -comparing media -studies found that when a simple message is trying to be conveyed the more lifelike the
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