Textbook Notes (368,006)
Canada (161,556)
Psychology (1,899)
PSY220H5 (98)
Chapter 5

PSY220 chapter 5 textbook notes

6 Pages
Unlock Document

Dax Urbszat

CHAPTER 5 PERSUASION -persuasion: the process by which changes in belief, attitudes or behaviours are induced by a message -culture-shaping usually occurs top-down -content of the message that elicits good/bad -bad  propaganda -good  education  factually based and less coercive -however in general, education when we believe it and propaganda when we don’t WHAT PATHS LEAD TO PERSUASION? -a persuasive message must clear several hurdles before eliciting an action The central route -central route to persuasion: occurs when interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favourable thoughts  weak arguments will lead the person to counter-argue The peripheral route -peripheral route to persuasion: occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues (ex: speaker’s attractiveness) - without much thinking, focusing on cues that trigger acceptance -familiar statements are more persuasive than new statements that have the exact same meaning -produces superficial, temporary attitude changes Different routes for different purposes -central route processing can lead to longer lasting changes than peripheral route processing -a changed attitude is more likely to last in those who think deeply rather than superficially WHAT ARE THE ELEMENTS OF PERSUASION? -4 elements: -the communicator -the message -how the message is communicated -the audience Who says? The communicator -who is saying something affects how an audience receives it -credibility -credibility: believability....a credible communicator is perceived as both expert and trustworthy -sleeper effect: delayed impact of a message; occurs when we remember the message but forget a reason for discounting it -perceived expertise -appearing smart by saying things the audience agrees with -being introduced as someone who is knowledgeable -appear credible by speaking confidently...appear less competent/credible if you hesitate -perceived trustworthiness -trustworthiness higher if the audience believes the communicator isn’t trying to persuade them -ex: assume when eavesdropping on someone who is unaware, assume they are telling the truth to whoever they are talking to. Why else would they have a reason to lie? -those who argue against their own self-interest are perceived more sincere -Miller found that when people talk fast their trustworthiness and credibility increases and they become more persuasive -gain credibility if they appear to be expert and trustworthy -attractiveness and liking -attractiveness: having qualities that appeal to an audience -an appealing communicator (usually someone similar to the audience) is most persuasive on matters of subjective preference -more likely to respond to those we like -may open us up to communicator’s arguments (central route persuasion) or go the peripheral route persuasion route and trigger positive associations when we see the product later -attractiveness has several forms: -physical  especially emotional ones, arguments are more influential coming from someone we consider attractive -similarity we like people who are like us and are influenced by them -when choice has to do with matters of personal value/taste/way of life, similar communicators have the most influence -when choice has to do with judgments of fact, confirmation of belief by a dissimilar person does more to boost confidence  provides a more independent judgment What is said? The message content -reason versus emotion -depends on the audience -well-educated/analytical people are more responsive to rational appeals than those who are less educated/analytical -thoughtful, involved audiences are more responsive to reasoned arguments  central route -disinterested audiences more affected by how much they like the communicator  peripheral route -depends on how initial attitudes were formed -formed mainly through emotion  persuaded more by later emotional appeals -formed mainly through reason  persuaded more by later intellectual arguments -the effect of good feelings -messages more persuasive through association with good feelings -those in unhappy moods think more before reacting and are less easily swayed by weak arguments -the effect of arousing fear -often, the more scared the person, the more they respond -fear-arousing communications increases a person’s detection behaviours -work better when trying to prevent a bad outcome than when trying to promote a good outcome -when fear pertains to a pleasurable activity, result not behavioural change but rather denial -discrepancy -the effect of a large or small discrepancy depends on whether the communicator is credible -those involved deeply tend to accept only a narrow range of views -advocate an extreme view if your audience isn’t as concerned with your issue and if you are a credible authority -one-sided versus two-sided appeals -one-sided appeal worked better on those who already agreed where a two-sided appeal that acknowledges opposing arguments was most effective on those who initially opposed -two-sided appeal more persuasive and enduring if people are (or will be) aware of opposing arguments -one-sided message apparently stimulates an informed audience to think of counter-arguments and see the communicator as biased -positive persuasion works best for optimists where negative persuasion works best for pessimists -primacy versus recency -primacy effect: information presented first usually has the most influence if everything else is equal -recency effect: information presented last sometimes has the most influence. Not as common as primacy effect -forgetting creates the receny effect when enough time separates the two messages and when the audience is required to provide a response soon after the second message -primacy effect usually occurs when the two messages are back to back followed by a time gap Primacy effect predicted: |message 1||message 2| --time--> response: message #1 accepted Recency effect predicted: |message 1| --time--> |message 2|response: message #2 accepted How is it said? The channel of communication -channel of communication: the way the message is delivered (ex: face to face, writing, media, etc) -active experience or passive reception? -spoken appeals not necessarily more persuasive -exposure to unfamiliar stimuli breeds liking and repetition can make things more believable -saying that a claim is not true (even when the discounting is presented among other true and false claims) can lead older adults to misremember it as true  they forget the discounting and their lingering familiarity with the claim makes them still think it’s true -repetition of a statement increases its fluency which increases believability -rhyming also increases fluency -persuasion decreases as the significance of the issue increases -personal versus media influence -major influence on us is our contact with people Ex: divided individuals not intending to vote for the revision into 3 categories: 1) those exposed to only what they say in the media 19% voted in favour, 2) received 4 mailings in support of the revision 45% voted in favour, 3) visited personally and given the appeal face to face 75% voted in favour -media influence: the two-step flow -two-step flow of communication process by which media influence often occurs through opinion leaders who then influence others -main goal of marketers and politicians is to influence the opinion leaders and trendsetters (the influentials) -opinion leaders are those individuals perceived as experts  could even be as simple as anyone who has chosen to absorb information and then inform their family/friends -ex: mother go to son for advice on new computer  son gets his ideas from printed page  sell son and you sell mother as well -comparing media -studies found that when a simple message is trying to be conveyed the more lifelike the
More Less

Related notes for PSY220H5

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.