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Chapter 14

Chapter 14 Textbook Notes - Emotion, Reward, Aggression and Stress

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Ayesha Khan

Notes From Reading CHAPTER 14:E MOTION ,R EWARD ,A GGRESSION ,AND STRESS (PGS .402-429) Emotion - Emotion – A combination of physical sensations and the conscious experience of a feeling - Emotion has two major components: o Physical sensation such as a rapid heartbeat o Conscious, subjective experience or feeling, such as feeling scared - Valence – A positive (attractive) or negative (aversive) reaction to an object or event The Evolution of Emotion - Charles Darwin (1872) made a careful study of the facial expressions produced by human and other primates and concluded that emotional expression must have evolved - One possible advantage of emotions is their contribution to general arousal o Simple tasks: greater arousal tends to lead to superior performance (ie. outrunning a predator) o Complex tasks: there is deficits in performance when arousal levels are too high (ie. performing badly on a difficult exam because we are stressed) - Emotions manage our approach and withdrawal behaviours relative to particular environmental stimuli - Nonverbal Communication – The use of facial expressions, gestures, and body language to communicate ideas and feelings o Provides a source of social information Expression and Recognition of Emotion - Human adults usually express and interpret emotions accurately - We can hide our feelings, but the subtleties of emotional expressions often give us away Controlling Facial Expression - Humans pay most attention to the face, in particular to the eyes - Movement of human face is controlled by two cranial nerves o Facial nerve (cranial nerve VII): controls the superficial muscles attached to the skin (primarily responsible for facial expressions) o Trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V): controls the deeper facial muscles attached to the bones of the head (responsible for chewing food and speaking) - The facial nerve has 5 major branches, each serving a different portion of the face o Originate in the two facial nuclei located on either side of the midline in the pons o These nuclei do not communicate directly with each other o Receives input from primary motor cortex located in the precentral gyrus of the frontal lobe as well as from several subcortical motor areas - Upper third of the face is controlled differently than the lower two thirds o Upper third of the face receives input from both the ipsilateral and contralateral facial nerves o Lower two thirds of the face are controlled primarily by the contralateral facial nerve o If there is damage to motor cortex of one hemisphere, the contralateral lower face will be paralyzed and will appear to sag - Input from the motor cortex is primarily responsible for voluntary expression - Subcortical system is primarily responsible for spontaneous expression - Volitional (voluntary) Facial Paresis (paralysis) – ability to express voluntary emotion is impaired o Occurs with damage to the primary motor cortex o Unable to smile on command on the side of the mouth, contralateral to damage - Emotional facial paresis – the ability to express spontaneous emotions is impaired o People with Parkinson‟s disease, involves subcortical motor structures including the substantia nigra and basal ganglia Notes From Reading CHAPTER 14:E MOTION ,REWARD ,A GGRESSION ,AND STRESS (P GS.402-429) o Lose the ability to smile spontaneously while retaining the ability to smile on command Biological Influences on Emotional Expression - Darwin assumed that emotional expression had a strong biological basis - Children‟s capacities for emotional expression and recognition develop according to a fairly regular timeline, with relatively little influence by experience o Infants born blind show a progression in the development of social smiling that is similar to that of sighted infants (despite being unable to learn by observing) Environmental Influences on Emotion - Influences of culture and learning modify emotional expression - Presence of other people often influence the intensity of emotional expression - Blind babies exhibit social smiles at around the same time as sighted infants o Congenitally blind adults show the same number and types of facial expressions as sighted adults o Observers have more difficultly interpreting their expressions, with the exception of happiness (an ultimate universal emotion?) Individual Differences in Emotion - Newborn infants showed consistent levels of reactivity to an unpleasant odor „ - One source of these individual differences appears to be the amygdala, playing a crucial role in the interpretation of emotional stimuli o Major depressive disorder show higher levels of activity in the amygdala than participants without any mood disorder Can We Spot a Liar? - The normally articulate person stumbles verbally, adding “um”s and “uh”s, as he or she struggles to assemble a plausible lie - People who lie tend to stiffen the head and upper body, nod their heads less frequently and do not use hand gestures as much as when they‟re telling the truth - Polygraph – A lie-detector test based on measures of autonomic arousal o Widely used by both law enforcement and employers, in spite of their unreliability o Reflect arousal and an innocent person might be aroused out of fear of being accused - fMRIs may be used in the future to detect changes in brain activation during lying - “Brain fingerprinting” uses EEG recordings to determine recognition of crime scene evidence - o Timing of responses might indicate truthfulness, with faster responding associated with telling the truth and slower responses indicating a lie Theories of Emotion - Three classic theories have attempted to characterize the relationships between the two components of emotion The James-Lange Theory - James-Lange Theory – A theory of emotion in which a person‟s physical state provides cues for the identification of an emotional state - Assumes that physical states related to each type of feeling (ie. sadness and happiness) are highly distinct physical states as separate feelings - Another suggestion is that our facial expression affect the way we feel o Intentionally making facial movements can stimulate physical responses that are quite similar to spontaneous emotional expression Notes From Reading CHAPTER 14:E MOTION ,REWARD ,AGGRESSION ,AND STRESS (PGS.402-429) - Empathy – The ability to relate to the feelings of another person o Imitating the facial expressions of others might contribute to empathy - Catharsis – The relief of tension through the expression of emotion o Emotions are viewed as filling a reservoir, and when the reservoir is full, the emotions will “overflow”, emptying the person of that emotion The Cannon-Bard Theory - Cannon-Bard Theory – A theory of emotion in which the simultaneous activation of physical responses and the recognition of subjective feelings occur independently - Proposes that both the subjective and physical responses occur simultaneously and independently - The CNS has the ability to produce an emotion directly, without needing feedback from the peripheral nervous system The Schachter-Singer Theory - Schachter-Singer Theory – A theory of emotion in which general arousal leads to cognitive assessment of the context, which in turn leads to the identification of an emotional state - Assumes that emotions results from a sequence of events o A stimulus first produces general arousal o Once aroused, we make a conscious, cognitive appraisal of our circumstances, which allows us to identify our subjective feelings o Arousal might lead to several interpretations, based on the way a person assesses his or her situation - Weakness in this theory: the assumption that physiological states are not uniquely associated with specific emotions Contemporary Theories of Emotion - Contemporary theorists note that physical responses associated with an emotion may range from quite specific to quite ambiguous - This model correctly predicts that emotional responses may range from immediate to delayed, based on the amount of cognitive processing that is required - People whose emotions are impacted by neurological damage provide the basis for yet another view of emotion o A stimulus is processed by the sensory cortex if it is immediately present, or by the hippocampus if the stimulus is remembered o These areas activate structures involved with emotions such as the brainstem, hypothalamus, and amygdala o Messages are sent to the ANS and to higher levels of the brain o The somatosensory cortex encodes this entire pattern of experience as a somatic marker o The ventromedial prefrontal cortex, in turn, forms associations between somaic markers and facts about the situations that elicited them Biological Correlates of Emotion - Emotional states are accompanied by complex, interacting physical responses that usually combine activation of the ANS, amygdala, the cingulate cortex and the cerebral cortex The Autonomic Nervous System - Controls many activities of our organs and glands, participates in the general arousal associated with emotional states - Answers primarily to the hypothalamus, either directly or by ay of the nucleus of the solitary tract, a structure located in the medulla that receives input rom the hypothalamus - Autonomic responses associated with negative emotions generally appear to be stronger than those associated with positive emotions The Amygdala Notes From Reading CHAPTER 14:E MOTION ,R EWARD ,A GGRESSION ,AND S TRESS (PGS.402-429) - Kluver-Bucy Syndrome – A collection of symptoms, including tameness, extreme sexual behaviour, and ral exploration, that results from damage to the temporal lobes, and the amygdala in particular - Amygdala receives information from many areas of the neocortex, especially sensory cortex, from the cingulate cortex and from the hippocampus o Amygdala projects widely to numerous areas of the brain, including the frontal and temporal lobes of the cortex, the olfactory bulb and cortex, the basal ganglia the hypothalamus, and the nucleus accumbens - Bilateral damage to the amygdala usually produces reduced emotionality o Fear,
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