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Ch 8.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY311H5
Professor
Stuart Kamenetsky
Semester
Summer

Description
Ch 8. Peers: the wider world of social development -peer relationships are briefer, freer, and more equal than relationships with adults. Also more likely to involve shared positive emotions and conflicts -they offer children opportunities for new types of interpersonal exploration, facilitate the growth of social competence, and open the way for children to form associations outside the family Defintions and Distinctions -peer: another child roughly the s mag -Friend: a peer with whom the child has a special relationship -they offer different kinds of interactions Developmental patterns of peer interactions First encounters in infancy -in the first 6months of life, babies touch and look at each other and are responsive to each other’s behaviors. But these early behaviors can’t be conserved truly social in the sense that an infant seeks and expects a response from another baby -it isn’t until the second half of the first year that infants begin to recognize a peer as a social partner. -between 6 and 12 months infants try to interact with other infants by vocalizing, waving, and touching. Often friendly -social exchanges between infants are noticeable y different from those with adults. They are shorter and less sustained because infants are less reliably responsive than adults. They are also more equal b/c adults usually take the lead in maintaining interactions with infants Social exchanges between Toddlers -between ages 1 and 2, children make gains in locomotion and language, and this increases the complexity of their social exchnges. -they develop the ability to engage in complementary social interactions -Interactions last longer -ages 2-3; engage in pretend play Peer play in early Childhood -associative play: interaction in which young children share toys, materials, and sometimes conversations but are not engaged in a joint project -Cooperative play: interaction in which children share goals and work together to achieve them -parallel play: interaction in which very young children are doing the same, often side by side, but are not engaged together -pretend play seems to be particularly important in the development of social competence in early child hood. It permits children to experience the roles and feelings of other in a playful context, and it teaches them to function as part of asocial group and coordinate their activities with other chidlren -Pretend play common in westernized cultures but in some group orientated cultures it is rare Peer society in the school years -the hallmark concern is about being accepted by peers and fitting in whit classmates The importance of the peer’s age -age of the peer becomes more important factor and companionship with sm age peers increases These peers share interests and abilities Importance of the peers gender -upto age 3 or 4 children are equally likely to choose sm gender or other gender comapnions -up to age 7 they are willing to play with a peer of the opposite sex. But over the course of elementary school, both boys and grils increasingly choose playmates of the sm gender (b/c of different interest and use of different equipment) -girls tend to play quiet games, in small groups, near school building, and close to adult supervision. Inclined to prefer play involving artistic endeavors, books, or dolls. They like structured activities, such as talking and walking. -boys tend to play high-energu, run and chase games in large groups that take up nearly 10x as much space as girls play. Boys are more competitive. -both participate in both cooperative and competitive activities Peer interactions in adolescence -high school students spend nearly 30% of their waking hours with peers during a typical week not including the time they spend together in class. Twice as much as with parent sand other adults -Peers have a stronger influence on whether teens use alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drugs, especially marijuana, than aprents do -peer influence is especially significant if adolescents lack parental support -adolescents whose parents are warm, supportive, and authortitative. Are less susepctible to peer pressure -also helps if adolescents friends are authoritative In adol. Gender segregation in peer activities breaks down a bit as dating begins Peers as socializers modeling behavior: -often imitation -given a choice, children are most likely to imitate peers who are older, more powerful, and more prestigious Reinforcing and punishing behavior - peer pressure… peers not only model behaviors but also actively try to convince other children to engage in them -they tell children how to behave and reinforce them with praise and positive reactions for behaviors they approve of or punish them with criticism and negative reactiosn for behaviors they dislike. -peers are increasingly likely to reinforce each other as they get older Social comparision -social comparision: the process by which ppl evaluate their own abilities, values, and other qualities by comparing themselves with others, usually their peers. -such comaprisions play a major role in determining self-esteem -comparing themselves with peers is adaptive -children use social comparisions with their peers as a way to evaluate themselves with increasing frequency in the early years of elementary school, and , once bgun, this process never really stops Peer status Studying peer status: Acceptance and rejection -sociometric technique: a procedure for determining a child’s status within her or his peer group; each child in the group either nominates others whom she or he likes best or least or rates each child in the group for desirability as a companion -the nominations approach has the adhavtange of being quick and easy to administer. However, by limiting the number of choices some information may be missed -A third method for assessing peer status is gathering information about children’s perceived popularity (ratings of how well a child is liked by his or her peers, made by his teachers, parents, and children -popular children: youngster who are liked by many peers and disliked by very few -average children: youngsters who have some friends but who are not as well liked as popular children -neglected children: youngsters who are often socially isolated and, although they are not necessarily disliked, they have few friends -controversial children: youngsters who are liked by many but also disliked by many -rejected children: youngsters who are disliked by many peers and liked by very few Factors tha affect peer acceptance Behaviors that make a difference -two types of popular children -the majority are friendly toward their peers and well liked by them. They are assertive but not aggressive or disruptive. Good communication, engage in more prosocial behavior -a small number of children and adolescents who are perceived to be popular display a mis of positive and negative behaviors. The popular-aggressive kids are athletic, arrogant, and aggressive, but at the same time are viewed as cool and attractive. They wield high levels of social influence although their actions are often manipulative rather than prosocial -these kids show increased alcohol use and sexual activity -two types of rejected children -aggressive-rejected children: youngsters who are not accepted by their peers because of their low level of self-control and high level of aggression -nonaggressive-rejected children: excluded youngster who tend to be anxious, withdrawn, and socially unskilled Biological predispositions -underlying these behaviors that affect peer status are biological predispositions -children who are likely to be rejected by their peers because they are disruptive, aggressive, and hyperactive are temperamentally active, outgoing, impulsive, and unfocused; that is their temperaments are characterized by high extraversion-surgency and poor effortful control -children who are likely to be rejected or neglected by their peers because they are withdrawn are temperamentally unsociable. (extraversion-surgency in early childhood) -children who are likely to be popular because their interactions with peers are frequent and competent have temperaments that are neither inhibited nor impulsive -evidence that peer status has biological underpinnings has also been shown in studies of children’s hormone levels Social cognitive skills -need to know how to communicate ideas and such. Need to understand their peers Are children always reflective? -sometimes behavior is impulsive or automatic (has adv. Like saving time, cognitive energy, and quick responses Children’s goals in social interactions -goals affect strategies -aim to maintain use prosocial; aim to dominate use coercive Physical appearance -another factor that influences stat us look -initial appraisals on looks -positive attributes attributed to good
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