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Ch 13.docx

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Stuart Kamenetsky

Ch. 13 Public Policy -Social Policy: a set of planned actions to solve a social problem to attain a social goal -Public Policy: govt. based social policy -social policies have a number of purposes. First, they provide info. Second, policies provide funding to achieve goals such as child protection and family support. Third, to provide services to prevent or reduce problems (ex. Head Start). Fourth, provide an infrastructure to support efforts on behalf of children What determines Public Policy for children? -in the 1800s, the main concern for US policy marks was working conditions for children; in middle of th the 20 century, preventing moral and sexual transgressions by children . Now policy concerns include poverty, health insurance, child care, teenage parenthood, and child abuse -Among developed countries, the US has the highest rate of poverty but spends the least to reduce it -how money should be used: -block grant: a fixed amount of money provided by the federal govt -matching grant: the federal govt and the state share the costs of the program Types of Public Policy -Primary prevention policies: a set of planned actions designed to alter environmental conditions and prevent problems before they develop -secondary prevention policies: a set of planned actions targeted at children who are already at risk of developing serious problems -economic improvement: the goal for one type of policy is economic improvement. -Temporary assistance for Needy families (TANF) is an example of this: federal legislation that provides block grants to states, introduces time limits on cash assistance to individuals and imposes work requirements -Service oriented: helping families meet their basic needs by providing food stamps, health care, child care, and housing -parent-directed intervention: supports parents psychologically and improves their children-rearing skills with the hope this will enhance the child’s development -intervention with parents and children: chidlren are helped through preschool education, child care, and health benefits; parents are assisted through education, job training, and parenting skills training -target children directly: by improving quality of schools in improversihed areas or funding supplementary after school programs Children in poverty: a social policy challenge -about 18% of children live in families with incomes below the poverty line in the US Economic Hardship and social disadvantage -poverty is not only a lack of monetary resources; it comes with social disadvatnages as well -powerlessness is on disadvtange -many poor people experience psychological distress, feel helpless, insecure , and controlled by external forces, and are unable to support and nurture their children Effects of Poverty on children -poor children are at risk from the time they are born. -bad for child’s emotional health -Poverty affect children in several ways -poor home environment -parent’s emotional and physical problems -dangerous neighborhoods -family disruptions (like moving) Programs to reverse the effects of poverty Head Start -Head start: a federally funded program that provides preschool experience, social services, and medical and nutritional care to disadvantaged preschool children -resulted in fewer behavioral problems and improved parenting -similar programs that start earlier and last longer (much more expensive) has shown to be much better Welfare reform policies -Personal responsibility and work opportunity reconciliation (PRWORA): federal legislation designed to reduce single-parent families’ long term reliance on welfare or cash assistance -little effect Input and Outcome: Getting what you pay for -evidence to increased spending results in increased positive impact Child Care: a problem lacking a unified policy -increase in children being cared for by those other than mothers -primary reason is the rise in maternal employment -there is less avialbility in help from extended family Choosing child care: What’s a parent to do? -based on cost, convenience, and quality (most important but hardest to define and recognize) -quality has gotten worse Types of Child care -family child care home: a child care arrangement in which an individual cares for three or four children in his/her home -center care: a licensed and regulated type of child care facility operated by trained professional care givers and providing educational opportunities, peer contacts, and materials and equipment Effects of child care on children Quality of child care matter -higher quality care results in children who are more sociable, considerate, compliant, controlled, and prosocial. Better adjusted -even child’s physiology is related What is quality care? -physical environment (more toys and space) -number of children in the setting (too many causes a problem for the caregiver. Should be atleast one caregiver for every three or four chidlren) -activities (an ideal program gives children some structured activities as well as free play) -caregivers qualifications (those who have higher levels of education and more training in child dev. Are more likely to provide high quality care) -stability of the staff Time in child care -chid
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