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PSY311H5 (63)
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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY311H5
Professor
Stuart Kamenetsky
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 9 Schools and Media: Children in an Electronic Age Chapter Summary SCHOOLS AND MEDIA: CHILDREN IN AN ELECTRONIC AGE THE ROLE OF THE SCHOOL IN SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT SCHOOLS AS OCIAC OMMUNITIES SCHOOLS IZE ANORGANIZATION Big School; Small School Age Groupings in Schools Coeducational versus Same-Gender Schools CLASSSIZE ANDORGANIZATION Advantages of Small Classes Benefits of Open Classrooms Cooperative Learning Peer Tutors BET YOU THOUGHT THAT . . OME-SCHOOLEDC HILDREW ERESOCIALLYDISADVANTAGED THE TEACHER’ MPACT Teacher-Student Relationships Keeping Control: Classroom Discipline and Management Teacher Expectations and Children’s Success SCHOOL-FAMILYLINKS School Culture; Home Culture Learning from Living Leaders: Nancy E. Hill Cultural Context: Matching Classroom Organization to Cultural Values and Practices Parents’ Involvement in Schools School as a Buffer for Children After-School Programs Learning from Living Leaders: Deborah Lowe Vandell SCHOOLINTEGRATION ELECTRONIC MEDIA AND CHILDREN'S SOCIAL LIVES W ATCHINGTELEVISION APLAYINGVIDEOGAMES Hours of Involvement Content of Television Shows and Video Games DO CHILDRENUNDERSTANDW HATTHEY SE? TELEVISI’SPOSITIVEFFECTS Learning from Living Leaders: Aletha C. Huston NEGATIVEEFFECTS OTELEVISION AVIDEOG AMES Television Biases Perceptions Television and Video Games Displace Other Activities Television Stereotypes Minority Groups Television and Video Game Violence Leads to Aggression Television and Video Game Violence Leads to Desensitization Television and Sexuality Real-World Application: Advertising Influences Children’s Choices HOW C ANPARENTS ANSIBLINGM ODIFYTV’SN EGATIVEFFECT? Into Adulthood: Still Playing Games? INTERNET ANCELLPHONE CONNECTIVITY INTERNEA CCESS ANUSE EFFECTS ONTERNETINVOLVEMENT Internet Identity Effects on Social Relationships Research up Close: Role-Playing Games and Social Life Effects of Internet Sex Learning from Living Leaders: Patricia M. Greenfield Effects on Mental Health CELLPHONE CONNECTIONS Insights from Extremes: The Risks of Sexting Chapter Summary Key Terms 2 At the Movies Learning Objectives 1. Explain what is meant by school representing a social community. 2. Describe the influences of school size and organization on social development (e.g., opportunities for participation in school activities, age groupings and school transitions, coeducational versus mixed gender). 3. Describe influences on children’s social experiences by class size and organization (e.g., small classes, open classrooms, cooperative learning, peer tutoring). 4. Summarize the findings regarding how teachers contribute to children’s social success via teacher-child relationships, classroom management, and expectations. 5. Define the Pygmalion effect and the notion of self-fulfilling prophecy. 6. Describe the links between family and school in terms of similarities and differences in home versus school culture, parental involvement, school as a buffer for children with stressful home lives, and after-school programs. 7. Summarize the findings regarding the effects of school integration on student self-esteem, achievement, educational attainment, and interracial attitudes. 8. Describe the effects of television and video games on children in terms of the number of hours spent watching TV and playing video games and the content to which children are exposed. 9. Define what is referred to as magic window thinking. 10. Summarize the positive (cognitive and language development, prosocial behavior) and negative effects (perception bias, displacement of other activities, stereotypes, aggression, desensitization, sexuality) of television and video games. 11. Describe the ways parents can modify the negative effects of television. 12. Summarize the effects of Internet activity on identity formation, social relationships, sexual risks, and mental health. 13. Discuss the effects of cell phone usage on social interaction. 4 Student Handout 9-1 Chapter Summary Role of Schools in Social Development • Schools have an informal agenda of socializing children by teaching them the rules, norms, and values they need to make their way in society and helping them develop the skills to interact successfully with their peers. • Schools are communities of teachers, students, and staff. Children who develop a sense of community in school do better socially and have lower rates of violence and drug use; they are also less likely to drop out of school. • In small schools, children are more likely to participate in extracurricular activities and less likely to drop out than in large schools. • Making the transition from elementary school to middle school or from middle school to high school can affect children’s self-esteem negatively. • Children in single-gender schools do better academically and perhaps socially than children in coeducational schools, perhaps because of differences in the characteristics of the schools and the parents who select them. • In small classes, teacher-child contacts are more frequent and personalized and children are better behaved, interact more with their peers, and are less likely to be victimized. • Elementary school children in open classrooms have more varied social contacts, develop more positive attitudes toward school, and show more self-reliance and cooperation in learning situations. High school students in open classrooms participate more in school activities, have more varied social relationships, and create fewer disciplinary problems. • Cooperative learning involves small groups of students working together. This classroom technique has a positive effect on children’s self-esteem, concerned feelings about peers, willingness to help, and enjoyment of school. • Peer tutoring in which an older, more experienced student tutors a younger child has benefits for both the tutor and the pupil, but tutors usually gain more. They benefit in self-esteem and status, and they derive satisfaction from helping others. • Children whose relationship with the teacher is close and warm have high levels of school adjustment and are likely to be accepted by their peers . Minority children are especially likely to benefit from close teacher-child ties. • Children are likely to succeed academically and socially when teachers expect them to do so, demonstrating a self-fulfilling prophecy or “Pygmalion effect.” • Teachers have less positive expectations for poor and minority children. • When parents are involved in their children’s school, the children tend to do better, especially if the parents’ involvement includes communicating expectations to teachers and communicating the value of education to children. • Children in high-quality after-school programs have better emotional adjustment, better peer relationships, better conflict resolution skills, and less delinquency than latchkey children. • Children from integrated schools feel safer and more satisfied and develop more positive interracial attitudes than children from segregated schools. Television and Video Games • Television viewing is a major influence on children’s social behavior. Viewing begins early in life and increases until adolescence. • Children watch a variety of programs, including cartoons, situation comedies, family-oriented programs, and educational shows. Boys watch more action-adventure and sports programs; girls prefer social dramas and soap operas. • Very young children display magic window thinking in which they do not distinguish between TV or video game fantasy and reality. • Programs that teach children about social rules and expectations, such as Sesame Street and Mister Rogers’ Neighborhood, have positive effects on children’s prosocial behavior. • Negative effects of television and video games include biasing children’s perceptions; children who are extensive TV viewers tend to overestimate the degree of danger and crime in the world and underestimate people’s trustworthiness and helpfulness. • TV and perhaps video games curtail children’s social interactions and activities such as sports and clubs. • TV portrayals of minority groups often support ethnic stereotypes. • Exposure to violent TV and video games leads to desensitization and increased aggression. • Exposure to sexually suggestive media f
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