Schools and Media: Children in an Electronic Age
SCHOOLS AND MEDIA: CHILDREN IN AN ELECTRONIC AGE
THE ROLE OF THE SCHOOL IN SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
SCHOOLS AS OCIAC OMMUNITIES
SCHOOLS IZE ANORGANIZATION
Big School; Small School
Age Groupings in Schools
Coeducational versus Same-Gender Schools
Advantages of Small Classes
Benefits of Open Classrooms
BET YOU THOUGHT THAT . . OME-SCHOOLEDC HILDREW ERESOCIALLYDISADVANTAGED
THE TEACHER’ MPACT
Keeping Control: Classroom Discipline and Management
Teacher Expectations and Children’s Success
School Culture; Home Culture
Learning from Living Leaders: Nancy E. Hill
Cultural Context: Matching Classroom Organization to Cultural Values and
Parents’ Involvement in Schools
School as a Buffer for Children
Learning from Living Leaders: Deborah Lowe Vandell SCHOOLINTEGRATION
ELECTRONIC MEDIA AND CHILDREN'S SOCIAL LIVES
W ATCHINGTELEVISION APLAYINGVIDEOGAMES
Hours of Involvement
Content of Television Shows and Video Games
DO CHILDRENUNDERSTANDW HATTHEY SE?
Learning from Living Leaders: Aletha C. Huston
NEGATIVEEFFECTS OTELEVISION AVIDEOG AMES
Television Biases Perceptions
Television and Video Games Displace Other Activities
Television Stereotypes Minority Groups
Television and Video Game Violence Leads to Aggression
Television and Video Game Violence Leads to Desensitization
Television and Sexuality
Real-World Application: Advertising Influences Children’s Choices
HOW C ANPARENTS ANSIBLINGM ODIFYTV’SN EGATIVEFFECT?
Into Adulthood: Still Playing Games?
INTERNET ANCELLPHONE CONNECTIVITY
INTERNEA CCESS ANUSE
Effects on Social Relationships
Research up Close: Role-Playing Games and Social Life
Effects of Internet Sex
Learning from Living Leaders: Patricia M. Greenfield
Effects on Mental Health
Insights from Extremes: The Risks of Sexting
2 At the Movies Learning Objectives
1. Explain what is meant by school representing a social community.
2. Describe the influences of school size and organization on social development (e.g.,
opportunities for participation in school activities, age groupings and school transitions,
coeducational versus mixed gender).
3. Describe influences on children’s social experiences by class size and organization (e.g., small
classes, open classrooms, cooperative learning, peer tutoring).
4. Summarize the findings regarding how teachers contribute to children’s social success via
teacher-child relationships, classroom management, and expectations.
5. Define the Pygmalion effect and the notion of self-fulfilling prophecy.
6. Describe the links between family and school in terms of similarities and differences in home
versus school culture, parental involvement, school as a buffer for children with stressful home
lives, and after-school programs.
7. Summarize the findings regarding the effects of school integration on student self-esteem,
achievement, educational attainment, and interracial attitudes.
8. Describe the effects of television and video games on children in terms of the number of hours
spent watching TV and playing video games and the content to which children are exposed.
9. Define what is referred to as magic window thinking.
10. Summarize the positive (cognitive and language development, prosocial behavior) and
negative effects (perception bias, displacement of other activities, stereotypes, aggression,
desensitization, sexuality) of television and video games.
11. Describe the ways parents can modify the negative effects of television.
12. Summarize the effects of Internet activity on identity formation, social relationships, sexual
risks, and mental health.
13. Discuss the effects of cell phone usage on social interaction.
4 Student Handout 9-1
Role of Schools in Social Development
• Schools have an informal agenda of socializing children by teaching them the rules, norms, and
values they need to make their way in society and helping them develop the skills to interact
successfully with their peers.
• Schools are communities of teachers, students, and staff. Children who develop a sense of
community in school do better socially and have lower rates of violence and drug use; they are
also less likely to drop out of school.
• In small schools, children are more likely to participate in extracurricular activities and less
likely to drop out than in large schools.
• Making the transition from elementary school to middle school or from middle school to high
school can affect children’s self-esteem negatively.
• Children in single-gender schools do better academically and perhaps socially than children in
coeducational schools, perhaps because of differences in the characteristics of the schools and
the parents who select them.
• In small classes, teacher-child contacts are more frequent and personalized and children are
better behaved, interact more with their peers, and are less likely to be victimized.
• Elementary school children in open classrooms have more varied social contacts, develop more
positive attitudes toward school, and show more self-reliance and cooperation in learning
situations. High school students in open classrooms participate more in school activities, have
more varied social relationships, and create fewer disciplinary problems.
• Cooperative learning involves small groups of students working together. This classroom
technique has a positive effect on children’s self-esteem, concerned feelings about peers,
willingness to help, and enjoyment of school.
• Peer tutoring in which an older, more experienced student tutors a younger child has benefits
for both the tutor and the pupil, but tutors usually gain more. They benefit in self-esteem and
status, and they derive satisfaction from helping others.
• Children whose relationship with the teacher is close and warm have high levels of school
adjustment and are likely to be accepted by their peers . Minority children are especially likely
to benefit from close teacher-child ties.
• Children are likely to succeed academically and socially when teachers expect them to do so,
demonstrating a self-fulfilling prophecy or “Pygmalion effect.”
• Teachers have less positive expectations for poor and minority children.
• When parents are involved in their children’s school, the children tend to do better, especially
if the parents’ involvement includes communicating expectations to teachers and
communicating the value of education to children.
• Children in high-quality after-school programs have better emotional adjustment, better peer
relationships, better conflict resolution skills, and less delinquency than latchkey children.
• Children from integrated schools feel safer and more satisfied and develop more positive
interracial attitudes than children from segregated schools.
Television and Video Games • Television viewing is a major influence on children’s social behavior. Viewing begins early in
life and increases until adolescence.
• Children watch a variety of programs, including cartoons, situation comedies, family-oriented
programs, and educational shows. Boys watch more action-adventure and sports programs;
girls prefer social dramas and soap operas.
• Very young children display magic window thinking in which they do not distinguish between
TV or video game fantasy and reality.
• Programs that teach children about social rules and expectations, such as Sesame Street and
Mister Rogers’ Neighborhood, have positive effects on children’s prosocial behavior.
• Negative effects of television and video games include biasing children’s perceptions; children
who are extensive TV viewers tend to overestimate the degree of danger and crime in the world
and underestimate people’s trustworthiness and helpfulness.
• TV and perhaps video games curtail children’s social interactions and activities such as sports
• TV portrayals of minority groups often support ethnic stereotypes.
• Exposure to violent TV and video games leads to desensitization and increased aggression.
• Exposure to sexually suggestive media f