Textbook Notes (362,811)
Canada (158,055)
Psychology (1,851)
PSY313H5 (24)
Chapter 10

Chapter 10 Study Guide

13 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Mississauga
Kathy Pichora- Fuller

Chapter 10 Personality What is Personality? -Personality: refers to a persons distinctive patterns of behavior, thought, and emotion. -Sometimes the personality is used to refer to a persons most unique characteristics -Researchers and theorists often differ substantially in their views about how personality develops. -Freud suggested that unconscious motives outside the adults awareness influenced personality development -In contrast, Skinner stressed the importance of learning and reinforced experiences in understanding how personality develops -Skinner suggested that the things a person does (overt behaviors, not unconscious wishes) compose personality -Current approaches emphasize gene-environment interactions -One way to measure personality is to ask a person about his or her personality. Another way is to observe behavior in everyday life. Other ways to assess personality involve administering tests, surveys, or questionnaires. -Personality can be studies at the level of dispositions or traits, at the level of characteristic ways of adapting to situations, and at the level of live narratives. -The levels of personality -Dispositions and traits: Traits refer to general dispositions that are relatively stable or consistent across situations. Measures of the traits provide a description of stability and change in personality dispositions during the adult years -Characteristic strategies for adapting to life events: Characteristic adaptations refer to the particular ways that particular individuals use to try to reach goals or adapt to changing situations -Life stories and life narratives: Life stories refer to internalized reconstructions of the past and of the future. Measures of life stories and self narratives provide www.notesolution.cominformation about the persons goals and longings and how they change. The Trait Approach to Adult Personality Characteristics of Traits -Principles underlying the trait approach 1. Traits are general dispositions or thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that endure over substantial periods of time 2. Traits have relatively little to do with the determination of single, specific behaviors. Specific behaviors are usually controlled by situational influences. Traits do, however, show an appreciable influence over behaviors that are averaged over long periods of time and over a range of diverse situations 3. Traits, by their inherent nature, are highly interactive (example trait anxiety is the tendency to experience fear when threatened, sociability involves the tendency to act friendly when in the presence of other people, and so forth). Thus, trait theory recognizes the importance of person-situation interactions 4. Traits are not merely reactive. Traits possess dynamic, motivating tendencies that seek out or produce situations that allow for the expression of certain behaviors. For example, a person who is open to experience may react with interest when presented with a new idea and may actively seek out new situations (by attending lectures, reading books, or changing an occupation) that lead to new experiences. 5. The enduring quality of general traits may manifest itself through the emergence of seemingly different types of behaviors that occur at different times in the adult life span. For example, an anxious person may be afraid of rejection in high school, economic recession in adulthood, and illness and death in old age 6. Traits need not to be purely inherited or biologically based. The origin of personality traits can and should remain in open question 7. Traits are most useful in describing and predicting psychologically important global characteristics in individuals. Because traits are sensitive to generalities in behavior, trait theory is especially useful in giving a holistic picture of the person. This feature of trait theory makes it the ideal basis for the study of personality and aging. If one adopted an interactionist or contextual model of personality, one would never attempt to address such global matter as how personality changes with age. www.notesolution.com
More Less

Related notes for PSY313H5

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.