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PSY318H5 (12)
Chapter 1

PSY295 - Chapter 1 and 3 Notes

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Ayesha Khan

CHAPTER 1 – THE DEVELOPMENT OF NEUROPSYCHOLOGY Portrait: Traumatic Brain Injury - L.D – 21 yrs old - slipped and fell down stairs - was unconscious, some damage to both sides of brain - impaired on tests of verbal memory and attention, otherwise normal - played golf, but couldn’t prepare meals  memory and attention abilities required for mental skill – executive function - CSF cushions brain and may play role in removing metabolic waste - cerebral cortex = outer layer that covers the brain - gryi = folds of the cortex and sulci = creases o some large creases are called fissures - longitudinal fissure – divides 2 hemispheres - lateral fissure – divides each hemisphere into 2 halves - corpus callosum – pathway that connects hemispheres called commissure - functions performed in forebrain sometimes referred to as higher functions - functions performed in brainstem and S.C sometimes referred to as lower-level functions How is the Brain Related to the Rest of the N.S? - CNS does not regenerate lost tissue, but the PNS does - PNS – consists of nerve fibers that carry info away from the CNS and others bring info to it - Sensory pathways carry info by means of somatic NS - Motor pathways = group of nerve fibers that connect brain and SC to body’s muscles through Somatic NS - Autonomic NS – consist of sensory and motor pathways that influence muscles of internal organs such as beating of heart, contractions of stomach, raising and lowering of diaphragm The Brain Vs. the Heart - Galen refuted the cardiac hypothesis – noticed that P on brain caused cessation of movement and even death but P on the heat does not arrest voluntary behaviour - Aristotle – nonmaterial psyche governed behaviour; worked through the heart to produce action - Dualism – idea that mind and body are separate but can interact - mind-body prob: how can a nonmaterial mind produce movements in material body - Monists – say that the mind and body are a unitary whole - materialism – idea that rational behaviour can be fully explained by the working of the NS w/o need to refer to a nonmaterial mind o prespective based on roots of evolutionary theories of Darwin and Alfred Russell Wallace o Darwin – all living things have a common descent; therefore similar characteristics - Gall developed a theory – localization of function – linked to phrenology - conduction aphasia – if arcuate fibers connecting the 2 speech areas were cut disconnecting them w/o causing damage to either one o speech and movements are retained as well as comprehension, but speech impaired b/c cannot make sense of what is heard Loss and Recovery of Function - removal of the cortex did not appear to eliminate any function completely, but seemed to reduce all functions to some extent o in animal studies Hierarchical Organization and Distributed Systems in the Brain - 3 levels of NS – SC, brainstem and forebrain, that developed successively in evolution The Split Brain - R hem also involved in aspects of lang o comprehended spoken words, read printed words, etc - split brain studies demonstrated that each disconnected hem. has its own higher Gnostic (knowing) functions Conscious and Unconscious Neural Streams - Visual form agnosia - can’t describe objects, but can reach for them - visual ataxia – can describe objects, but have difficulty reaching for them Relat
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