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Psychology (1,867)
PSY344H5 (46)
Chapter 4

Chapter 4 - Deception

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Dax Urbszat

Chapter4DeceptionTHE POLYGRAPH TECHNIQUEPolygraph a device for recording an individuals autonomic nervous system responses This type of deception detection relies on an underlying assumption that deception is associated with certain physiological changes such as an increased blood pressure heavy breathing increased heartbeat and galvanic skin responses Application of the Polygraph TestPolygraphs are used most commonly in criminal investigations when a police officer may ask a suspect to take a polygraph test If the suspect fails the test they may be pressured to confess thereby giving the police incriminating evidence Polygraph test results are not admissible in court so they are only used to detect deception and aid the decision to proceed with an interrogation Polygraphs are also used ask alleged victims if a crime actually occurred Insurance companies can use polygraphs to verify the claims of the insured More recently polygraphs have been used assess and monitor sexual offenders on probation Polygraph disclosure test a polygraph test that is used to uncover information about an offenders past behaviourTypes of Polygraph Tests Polygraphs rely on measuring physiological responses to different types of questions Some questions are designed to elicit a larger physiological response in guilty individuals than those who are innocent The Comparison Question Test CQToAlso known as the Control Question Test The Comparison Question Test is the most commonly used test to investigate criminal acts It includes 10 yes or no questions Three types of questions are asked irrelevant ex is your name Beatrice relevant ex did you shoot this man and comparison have you ever broken the law when you were in your 20s oComparison questions are meant to measure a persons overall honesty and past history oGuilty people will show more physiological responses to the relevant questions while innocent people will react more to the comparison questions The Concealed Information Test CIToThe Concealed Information Test was developed by Lykken and was originally called the guilty knowledge test The CIT is designed to determine if a person knows details about a crime that only the criminal would know Questions are posed in a multiple choice format where one answer is correct and the other four are foils questions that are plausible oInnocent people will respond the same to each of the choices being read to them Guilty people will react more to the correct answer The underlying assumption is that people react more
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