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Chapter 14

Chapter 1: Understanding Exceptionalities in the 21st Century (p. 2-23)

5 Pages

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Stuart Kamenetsky

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NotesFromReadingSTCHAPTER1UNDERSTANDINGEXCEPTIONALITIESINTHE21CENTURYPGS223A CHANGING ERA IN THE LIVES OF PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIESThe purpose of a label is to communicate specific differences in people who vary significantly from what is considered typical or normalDisorder A disturbance in normal functioning mental physical or psychologicalDisability A condition resulting from a loss of physical functioning or difficulties in learning and social adjustment that significantly interfere with normal growth and developmentHandicap A limitation imposed on a person by the environment and the persons capacity to cope with that limitationExceptional An individual whose physical mental or behavioural performance deviates so substantially from the average higher or lower that additional support is required to meet the individuals needsoGifts and Talents Extraordinary abilities in one or more areasoLearning Disabilities A condition in which one or more of an individuals basic psychological processes in understanding or using language are deficientoIntellectual Disabilities Substantial limitations in functioning characterized by significantly subaverage intellectual functioning concurrent with related limitations in two or more adaptive skills intellectual disability is manifested prior to age 18Deaf Individuals who have hearing losses greater than 75 to 80 dB have vision as their primary input and cannot understand speech through the earLabels communicate whether a person meets the expectation of the cultureLabelling is used is that in many social services and educational programs for people who are exceptional require the use of labels to distinguish who is eligible for services and who is notSome argue that the need to label may actually help protect a child with learning differences from a class bully who knowing the child is intellectually disabled may be more willing to accept the learning differencesOthers argue that labelling a child often has the opposite effectchild become more vulnerable to discrimination and abuse WHEN SOMEONE DOESNT CONFORM TO THE NORMA Developmental ApproachTypical development can be described by using statistics and milestonesThis includes observing in large numbers of individuals those characteristics that occur most frequently at a specific age When comparing an individual childs growth to that group average differences in development either advanced or delayed are labeled accordinglyA Cultural ApproachA cultural view suggests that differences can be explained to a large extent by examining the values inherent within a societyPeople are considered different sometimes deviant when they do something that is disapproved of by other members within the dominant cultureSelfLabelingSelfimposed labels reflect how we perceive ourselves not how others see us A person may be labelled by society as different but the individual does not recognize or accept the labelThe Effects of Being LabeledResearchers found that the label mental retardation generated a more negative reaction than the new terminology of intellectual disabilitiesSeparating the Person and the Label Once a label has been affixed to an individual the two may become inseparable
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