Textbook Notes (363,140)
Canada (158,217)
Psychology (1,851)
PSY354H5 (39)
Chapter 1

Chapter 1 Notes

5 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Mississauga
Ayesha Khan

Chapter 1: Page 3-27  Sexuality – the feelings, behaviours, and identities associated with sex o Study of it is multidisciplinary; benefitting from methods and findings of many different fields of research (p4) Aristotle distinguished two fundamentally different methods by which organisms reproduce themselves: sexual and asexual  He guessed incorrectly that only the father contributes to formation of fetus and mother only sustained fetal growth  Sexism – Prejudice or discrimination directed against one sex – usually women  Anatomists – researcher who studies the structure of the body th First anatomical description of the clitoris was not published until the 16 century Because a woman’s uterus migrated around her pelvis and abdomen, Greek anatomists believed it triggered physical and mental disorders wherever it went (hysteria comes from the Greek word for uterus) (p5) Johan Ham placed a drop of semen under microscope and saw spermatozoa (male gamete, produced in the tesis), which he incorrectly believed, contained tiny pre-formed humans, or homunculi William Harvey predicted existence of ovum (mature female gamete, prior to or immediately after fertilization Herman Fol was the first to observe the entry of a spermatozoon into an ovum Sexual ethics focus on questions of right and wrong sexual behaviour th 5 century saw all sexual behaviour as sinful because it was driven by passion, not will Aquinas conceded that procreative sex within marriage was apart of God’s design and ecclesiastical law forbade all other forms (p6) Enlightment was the 18 century movement that sought to replace traditional authority with the values of reason and freedom – rethinking of sexual ethics Jeremy Bentham argued sex should be based on happiness, and homosexuality should be legal because it brought both participants happiness and harmed no one else 18 and 19 century was when people began to consider that sex for pleasure might be morally acceptable because of Casanova and his publicity about condoms Victorian period (1837-1901) – time of renewed sexual repression and emphasis on female purity (abolish prostitution and pornography) but demand for sex information grew thus came sexology – the scientific study of sex, especially of sexual dysfunctions Richard von Krafft-Ebing compiled case histories of sexual deviations (p7) Sigmund Freud was the founder of psychoanalysis – school of thought placing origin of sexual problems in unconsciousness, especially during childhood Magnus Hirschfeld promoted biological ideas about sexuality, especially homosexuality Alfred Kinsey conducted large-scale sex surveys, found that 14% of women experience multiple orgasms Masters and Johnson recruited volunteers to engage in sexual behaviour in their labs, studied responses and published a book which was the first to describe men’s and women’s bodies during sexual behaviour (p8) Malinowski was an anthropologist who studied a Native population who believed only the mother contributed to the making of a fetus (matrilineal society which traces descent through the female line)  Children and adolescents engaged in sex in bachelors’ houses, but Christian missionaries tried to suppress these practices Freud described perversions – mental states in which adult sexual desires were directed toward atypical targets and neuroses is when the sexual element was repressed from consciousness and reemerged in nonsexual traits, such as OCD, hysteria, or depression Hirschfeld said the existence of two neural centers in the brain were responsible for sexual attraction to men and women – in early fetal life both centers are present, but later one one center grows and dominates (p9) Margaret Mead described how it was a point of pride among Samoan girls to have as many lovers as possible which prepared them for successful married lives (p10) Feminism is the belief that women are entitled to the same social, economic, and political rights as men, and the organized pursuit of these goals Margaret Sanger was a pioneer of Planned Parenthood and birth control clinics Dominant idea in the 1970s feminism was the differences between sexes are established by learning and culture – boys are socialized to be aggressive and girls submissive Chicana lesbians were the inspiration for third-wave feminism (p11) Butenandt and Ruzicka played key roles in the identification and synthesis of steroid sex hormones  Paved the way for the introduction of the pill which was first marketed in the late 50s Reproductive physiology is the study of fertility and pregnancy and led to the development of IVF  First test tube babe was in 1978 Microbiology is the study of microscopic organisms, especially those that cause diseases, which led to the effective treatments of STIs Sildenafil (Viagara, 1998) treated erectile dysfunction (persistent inability to achieve or maintain an erection sufficient to accomplish desired sexual behaviour) Neuroscientists discovered structural, functional, and chemical differences between the brains of men and women which originate in prenatal development and partially explain sexual orientation Sexual Revolution (1960s) – youth led movement for greater sexual freedom and individuality driven by reveling against the more orthodox WWII generation and fueled by feminism, the pill, rock and roll, and drugs (p12) Study published in 2010, scientists at National Institutes of Mental Health repeatedly scanned the brains of roughly 300 teenagers using an MRI and compiled them together  Brain are
More Less

Related notes for PSY354H5

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.