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Chapter 16

SOC100H5 Chapter Notes - Chapter 16: Secondary Sector Of The Economy, Primary Sector Of The Economy, State Capitalism

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Suzanne Casimiro

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Chapter 16: The Economy and Work
Chapter examines the economy
Explores the character of work and explains some of the consequences of the emerging global
marketplace for Canadians
The Economy: Historical Overview
Economy: social institution that organizes societys production, distribution and consumption of
goods and services
Goods: commodities ranging from necessities to luxury items
Services: activities that benefit others
Economy operates in a generally predictable manner
The Agricultural Revolution
Earliest human societies were made up of hunters and gatherers
Technologically simple societies
No distinct economy
Production and consumption took place within the family
New agricultural economy was created when people harnessed animals to plow which was more
productive than hunting and gathering
Many took on specialized work
Four factors tat made the economy a distinct social institution: agricultural technology, job
specialization, permanent settlements and trade
The Industrial Revolution
Mid 1700s
First in England and then in North America
Development of industry was even more powerful in bringing change to economy
Industrialization changed the economy in five ways:
1. New sources of energy
-“energy” used to mean muscle power of people or animals
-James Watt introduced the steam engine
2. Centralization of work in factories
-moved work from homes to factories
3. Manufacturing and mass production
-most people work to turn raw materials into a wide range of finished products such as
furniture and clothing
4. Specialization
-worker repeats single task over and over again, making small contribution to finished
-raises productivity
-lowers skill level of the average worker
5. Wage Labour
-instead of working for themselves, factory workers became wage laborers working for
Gradually raised the standard or living
Countless new products and services fuelled an expanding marketplace
Benefits of industrial technology were shared very unequally
The Information Revolution and Post-Industrial Society
Middle of the 20th century
Nature of production was changing
Post-industrial economy: productive system based on service work and high technology
Automated machinery and robotics
Reduced the role of human labour in factory production and expanded the ranks of clerical
workers and managers
Information Revolution has introduced new kinds of products and new forms of communication
and has altered the character of work
Three significant changes:
1. From tangible products to ideas
-people work with symbols
-computer programmers, graphic designers, financial analysis, advertising executives,
architects, editors
2. From mechanical skills to literacy skills
-communication skills
-Information Revolution requires literacy skills
-speaking and writing
-knowing how to use a computer becomes essential
3. From factories to almost anywhere
-allows people to work almost anywhere
-laptops, wireless computers, cellphones, blackberry
-blurs the line between work and home life
Sectors of the Economy
Primary sector: part of the economy that draws raw materials from the natural environment
oPrimary sector-agriculture, raising animals, fishing, forestry and mining
oLargest in low-income countries
Secondary sector- part of the economy that transformers raw materials into manufactured goods
oGrows as quickly as societies industrialize
oGlobalization of industry means that just about all countries have significant share of
their workers in secondary sector
oCanadas secondary sector is small by world standards
oCanada has lost manufacturing jobs to lower-wage countries in response to globalization
but other manufacturing industries replace them
Tertiary Sector- part of the economy that involves services rather than goods
oTertiary sector grows with industrialization and dominates economies of middle and high
income countrie
o75% of Canadian labour force is in this sector