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Canada (158,529)
Sociology (1,479)
SOC209H5 (126)

Soc 209 Readings

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Jennifer Carlson

Readings Notes 19/01/2013 11:22:00 AM Article One: Chapter One: Introduction to Criminology by: Kramer Representing Crime and Criminals: Karla Homolka, Paul Bernardo, and Robert Pickton (worst killer in Canadian History) What is crime? Crime can by defined from either formal or normative perspective.  Formally, Crime is a culpable action or omission prohibited by law and punished by the state, it is a crime because the law defines it that way.  Normatively, it views crime as conduct that violates cultural norms. Government responds with sanctions, when the norms violations are more serious, the gov’t responds by punishing those who are guilty of committing a crime. The established liberal philosophical ideal that crime and unwanted behaviour is that which causes harm assumes a societal consensus on the kinds of behaviour that cause harm; can be applied to an individual or societal context.  From this prospective, crime is seen not as the product of behaviour of individual criminals who are evil or mad but as a strategy of organized ideas about and responses to human conduct that is socially established as “harmful” or “criminal” The History of Criminalization: definitions of crime were imported into the first Criminal Code adopted from the English Draft Code, however there were also other rules added in connection colonizing of the Aboriginal peoples. Two situations were brought up in the readings:  The Indian Act criminalized Aboriginal practices in a way that facilitated colonization and the removal of Aboriginal peoples from their lands. Then the Indian Act of Canada was established and set aside reserve land for Indigenous people and laws have been changing as challenges are brought forth.  White Women’s Labour law; that Chinese businesses were not allowed to employ white women because it contaminates the white people business, as the white race was considered superior and the need to preserve racial purity in 1999. What is Criminology? There are two main branches of criminology.  Administrative criminology/ governmental criminology or correctionalism: is that branch which seeks to inform the management and control of crime and criminals through policy- oriented research. Enhances administration of criminal justice by providing governments with information on crime and by monitoring practices of the police and prisons.  Scientific/ Academic criminology: the study of expert knowledge and social practices that defines and shape ideas about, and responses to, conduct deemed criminal. o Taught in universities. The Media is one of the portraying methods of societies real concerns as they focus more on the law and order rhetoric.  Such TV shows as CSI, Suits, and Law and Order.  There have been increased concerns of criminological discourse, as more attention is paid to academic criminology rather than administrative. Moral Regulation: Moral values are underpinned by the discourses of health and morality and are enforced when using the criminal law, such example include gays, where only heterosexuality is accepted in society due to Christian elites. Readings Notes 19/01/2013 11:22:00 AM From Slavery to Mass Incarceration: Rethinking the „Race Question‟  One of the main sources of the reading concluded that segregation is enrooted from America. The blacks were always degraded and known as the lower class.  They went from slavery to mass imprisonment, as over the years when the African- Americans looking for hope came to America, they thought it would be for an easier and better life. However, the superior race of “white” did not agree and segregated the black community from whites.  The blacks were put in slums and the ghettos, as classified under the four peculiar institutions and their basis. o Slavery- unfree fixed labour (slave) o Jim Crow- free fixed labour (sharecropper) o Ghetto- free mobile labour (menial worker) o Hyperghetto & Prison- fixed surplus labour (welfare recipient & criminal)  Racial Disproportionality in US imprisonment o One of the articles have written that in a state or federal penitentiary based on the imprisonment rates of the early 90s is 4% whites, 16% Latinos, and 29% blacks. o The prison is a ghetto, the ghetto is a prison. Readings Notes 19/01/2013 11:22:00 AM “But They‟re Not Real Criminals”- Marginality and Condemnation By: Lauren Snider This article was about corporate crime and the importance of how criminals who commit average crimes such as burglary and other such things have more sever consequences then those higher up in the corporate ladder.  Lower-level workers are usually blamed for the mistakes of the upper-level workers.  One of the examples given was about the S&L situations.  Corporate lawyers usually cover up the mistakes of the companies by settling instead of fighting the case when they are at fault, so they could just pay them off with money.  Usually that’s not enough when they nearly destroy people’s lives.  Justice becomes very expensive indeed when the parties involved have the power to resist.  But by 2000 it was clear that downsizing, decriminalization, and deregulation had become the norm in occupational health and safety.  Self-regulation allows teams of employees with different ranks, specializations, and expertise to negotiate working conditions, determine the speed and pace of work, and set daily or weekly production goals within limits set by management.  Occupational health and safety standards are not guaranteed everywhere because of the lack of inspectors and the money it costs companies. There are several suits against companies for lack of safety that have caused death and injuries, which have never had action taken against or suffered minimal punishment.  Canada is one of the biggest polluters, we have culprits that pollute the lake and violat
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