Readings Notes 19/01/2013 11:22:00 AM
Article One: Chapter One: Introduction to Criminology by: Kramer
Representing Crime and Criminals: Karla Homolka, Paul Bernardo, and
Robert Pickton (worst killer in Canadian History)
What is crime? Crime can by defined from either formal or normative
Formally, Crime is a culpable action or omission prohibited by law
and punished by the state, it is a crime because the law defines it
Normatively, it views crime as conduct that violates cultural norms.
Government responds with sanctions, when the norms violations
are more serious, the gov’t responds by punishing those who are
guilty of committing a crime.
The established liberal philosophical ideal that crime and unwanted
behaviour is that which causes harm assumes a societal consensus on the
kinds of behaviour that cause harm; can be applied to an individual or
From this prospective, crime is seen not as the product of behaviour
of individual criminals who are evil or mad but as a strategy of
organized ideas about and responses to human conduct that is
socially established as “harmful” or “criminal”
The History of Criminalization: definitions of crime were imported into
the first Criminal Code adopted from the English Draft Code, however there
were also other rules added in connection colonizing of the Aboriginal
peoples. Two situations were brought up in the readings:
The Indian Act criminalized Aboriginal practices in a way that
facilitated colonization and the removal of Aboriginal peoples from
their lands. Then the Indian Act of Canada was established and set
aside reserve land for Indigenous people and laws have been
changing as challenges are brought forth.
White Women’s Labour law; that Chinese businesses were not
allowed to employ white women because it contaminates the white people business, as the white race was considered superior and the
need to preserve racial purity in 1999.
What is Criminology?
There are two main branches of criminology.
Administrative criminology/ governmental criminology or
correctionalism: is that branch which seeks to inform the
management and control of crime and criminals through policy-
oriented research. Enhances administration of criminal justice by
providing governments with information on crime and by
monitoring practices of the police and prisons.
Scientific/ Academic criminology: the study of expert knowledge
and social practices that defines and shape ideas about, and
responses to, conduct deemed criminal.
o Taught in universities.
The Media is one of the portraying methods of societies real concerns as
they focus more on the law and order rhetoric.
Such TV shows as CSI, Suits, and Law and Order.
There have been increased concerns of criminological discourse, as
more attention is paid to academic criminology rather than
Moral Regulation: Moral values are underpinned by the discourses of health
and morality and are enforced when using the criminal law, such example
include gays, where only heterosexuality is accepted in society due to
Christian elites. Readings Notes 19/01/2013 11:22:00 AM
From Slavery to Mass Incarceration: Rethinking the „Race Question‟
One of the main sources of the reading concluded that segregation
is enrooted from America. The blacks were always degraded and
known as the lower class.
They went from slavery to mass imprisonment, as over the years
when the African- Americans looking for hope came to America,
they thought it would be for an easier and better life. However, the
superior race of “white” did not agree and segregated the black
community from whites.
The blacks were put in slums and the ghettos, as classified under
the four peculiar institutions and their basis.
o Slavery- unfree fixed labour (slave)
o Jim Crow- free fixed labour (sharecropper)
o Ghetto- free mobile labour (menial worker)
o Hyperghetto & Prison- fixed surplus labour (welfare recipient
Racial Disproportionality in US imprisonment
o One of the articles have written that in a state or federal
penitentiary based on the imprisonment rates of the early 90s
is 4% whites, 16% Latinos, and 29% blacks.
o The prison is a ghetto, the ghetto is a prison. Readings Notes 19/01/2013 11:22:00 AM
“But They‟re Not Real Criminals”- Marginality and Condemnation
By: Lauren Snider
This article was about corporate crime and the importance of how criminals
who commit average crimes such as burglary and other such things have
more sever consequences then those higher up in the corporate ladder.
Lower-level workers are usually blamed for the mistakes of the
One of the examples given was about the S&L situations.
Corporate lawyers usually cover up the mistakes of the companies
by settling instead of fighting the case when they are at fault, so
they could just pay them off with money.
Usually that’s not enough when they nearly destroy people’s lives.
Justice becomes very expensive indeed when the parties involved
have the power to resist.
But by 2000 it was clear that downsizing, decriminalization, and
deregulation had become the norm in occupational health and
Self-regulation allows teams of employees with different ranks,
specializations, and expertise to negotiate working conditions,
determine the speed and pace of work, and set daily or weekly
production goals within limits set by management.
Occupational health and safety standards are not guaranteed
everywhere because of the lack of inspectors and the money it
costs companies. There are several suits against companies for lack
of safety that have caused death and injuries, which have never
had action taken against or suffered minimal punishment.
Canada is one of the biggest polluters, we have culprits that pollute
the lake and violat