Textbook Notes (290,000)
CA (170,000)
UTM (8,000)
SOC (1,000)
Chapter 5

notes for chapter 5 readings associated with lecture 5

Course Code
Lina Samuel

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Chapter 5 pgs. 99-119 Gender of Precarious Employment in CAN
SER (Standard Employment Relationship) normative model:
oOne employer, works full-time year round on employers premises and under
supervision, enjoys statutory benefits and entitlements, expects to be
employed indefinitely
Precarious Employment:
oAtypical employment contracts, limited social benefits and statutory
entitlements, job insecurity, low job tenure, low earnings, poor working
conditions, high risks of ill health
Sex difference become social inequalities gender shapes social relations in key
institutions that organize society (eg. Labour market)
Growth of non-standard jobs outpacing full-time, full-year jobs
Non-standard employment made up of 4 situations
oPart-time, temporary (incl. Contract, term, seasonal, casual, other forms with
predetermined end date), self employment, multiple job holding
Women more likely to be in non-standard employment but as rate of non-standard
jobs grow, proportion of men in this type grows
The 4 situations of non-standard employment are not mutually exclusive (eg. Can be
part-time temp or permanent, multiple job holdings can be perm/temp/self
employment) so must move away from this grouping to Precarious employment
definition which focuses on the quality of the jobs

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Rodgers’ 4 dimensions to establish if a job is precarious:
oDegree of certainty of continuing employment (time + risk of job loss)
oPresence/absence of trade union = degree of control over labour process
(working conditions + pace of work)
oDegree of regulatory protection through union representation or law
oIncome level sufficient to maintain worker and dependents
Feminists: SER is based on patriarchal or family wage model male
breadwinner/female caregiver designed to provide sufficient wage for man to
support wife + children
oSER became reality for most white men during immediate post WWII, while
women, immigrants, and racialized groups in precarious employment
o1970s macroeconomic instability = decrease in SER employment, affected
men and precarious employment grew
oMen engage in PT work to pursue education while women engage in PT work
for reasons related to caregiving = women in precarious work is shaped by
continuous gender inequalities in household resulting in womens greater
responsibilities for unpaid domestic work
Feminization typically associated w/ womens mass entry into labour force or
changing gender composition of jobs primarily young men, racialized men and
recent immigrant men experience feminization of employment norms
Feminization of employment norms erosion of the SER as a norm and spread
of non-standard forms of employment that exhibit qualities of precarious
employment associated with women = creation of more womens work in the market
and a new set of gendered employment relationship
o4 facets:
High levels of participation by women
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