ANTB14H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Binomial Nomenclature, Glaciology, James Hutton

32 views7 pages
Published on 9 Oct 2011
School
UTSC
Department
Anthropology
Course
ANTB14H3
ANTB14
Chapter 1
oEcology: the study of interrelationships of organisms and their environment
oMorphology: study of form and structure of organisms
Evolutionary Anthropologists Study:
oPrimatology: scientific study of our closest extant (living) biological relatives: non-human
primate species
Study primate anatomy and primate psychology
Primatologists try to conserve primates that might go extinct
oPaleoanthropology: study of biological evolution of humans and non-human primates
Excavation of fossils
Investigate advent and changes in human cultural activities
Ex. Tool use, subsistence patterns, and disease
Investigate evolutionary history of humans and non-human primates
oHuman Variation: studied to determine spatial and temporal variations in human feature
Humans vary in size, shapes, and colours but belong to the same species
oMedical Anthropology: study of how social, environmental, and biological factors influence
health and illness of individuals from all levels
Investigation of spatial and temporal variations in human survival, disease, health disparity
oForensic Anthropology: focuses on skeletal remains of humans
Skeletal remains analyzed to determine: age, sex, stature, ancestry, and trauma/ disease of
deceased
How Evolutionary Anthropologists Conduct Research:
oConduct 3 types of research
Descriptive research: involves collecting data about study subjects/objects
This type of research does not provide explanations for observations
Causal research: involves looking for one thing causes another thing happen or change
Applied research: involves scientists determining the means by which a specific, recognized
need can be met
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-2 of the document.
Unlock all 7 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Medical + Forensic Anthropologists focus on this type of research
oScientific Theory involves:
Observing phenomena
Formulating hypothesis about phenomena
Developing methods to test validity of hypothesis
Experimentation
Conclusion supporting/modifying hypothesis
Data collected must be repeatable, observable, empirical and measurable(qualitative or
quantitative)
Development of Evolutionary Concepts
oCarl Linnaeus
Studied plants and interested in classifying them
2 important contributions
Taxonomic system: classifying all living things in ranked hierarchy from highest
generalized category to species level
Binomial nomenclature: genus(taxonomic group exhibiting similar characteristics) and
species are written in Latin
Ex. Homo(human) sapiens(wise)
oGeorge-Louis Leclerc
Wrote Histoire Naturelle (notable contribution)
Described everything to his knowledge about natural history at the time
Ideas included what is now biogeography(study of where organisms live, why they are
there or not there)
Other primary contribution was that he proposed that species changed and evolved after they
moved from the place they were created
Similar to Darwin’s natural selection
oJean Baptist Lamarck
Major contribution: suggested that individuals lose traits that aren’t used and developed useful
traits that can be passed on to offspring
Ex. Which suggests that Hulk Hogan’s large muscles(acquired character) should be
passed on to offspring
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-2 of the document.
Unlock all 7 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Document Summary

Chapter 1 oecology: the study of interrelationships of organisms and their environment omorphology: study of form and structure of organisms. Evolutionary anthropologists study: oprimatology: scientific study of our closest extant (living) biological relatives: non-human primate species. Primatologists try to conserve primates that might go extinct opaleoanthropology: study of biological evolution of humans and non-human primates. Investigate advent and changes in human cultural activities. Investigate evolutionary history of humans and non-human primates ohuman variation: studied to determine spatial and temporal variations in human feature. Humans vary in size, shapes, and colours but belong to the same species omedical anthropology: study of how social, environmental, and biological factors influence health and illness of individuals from all levels. Investigation of spatial and temporal variations in human survival, disease, health disparity oforensic anthropology: focuses on skeletal remains of humans. Skeletal remains analyzed to determine: age, sex, stature, ancestry, and trauma/ disease of deceased. How evolutionary anthropologists conduct research: oconduct 3 types of research.