Ology: the study of or branch of knowledge. The scientific theory: an explanation for a set of related observations that is based on well- supported hypotheses from many different types of independent lines of research. Hypothesis: a proposed explanation for the observations made, that of which is testable, falsifiable and poses as a possible answer to a question. Prediction: an estimated outcome of an action, test or investigation. Experiments: sets of actions or observations that collect data or information and test specific hypotheses. Dependent variables: those not changed by the researcher; may change during the experiment and is being measured in the experiment. Controlled experiments: test the effect of a single variable, are limited to possible alternate hypotheses and the differences in its results should be due to the treatment used. Control or control group: these groups of individuals are similar to experimental subjects yet they do not receive the experimental treatment.