Chapter 2 (Fall2010)

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Biological Sciences
Mary Olaveson

BIOA01 FALL2010 CHAPTER 2 THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFEProtonneutron17 x 1024 g 1 dalton atomic mass unitProtonsneutrons atomic massProtonselectronscharge98 of life is composed of 6 elements C NOPS HIsotopes contain different number of neutrons therefore they have a different mass from one anotherRadioisotopes are unstanble they give off energy in the form of alpha beta and gamma radiation from the nucleusRadioactive decay transforms the atom including changes in the number of protonsEnergy can interact with surrounding materialNumber of electrons determines how atoms will interactChemical reaction involves changes in distribution of electronsElectrons are found in orbitals Reactive atoms have unpaired electrons in their valence shellAtoms can share electrons by losing gaining or sharing electrons resulting in bonded atoms forming moleculesOctet rule 8 electrons in valence shellsBiological molecules are very stable and require a lot of energy to break them apartVan der waalsinteraction of electrons of non polar substances weak
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