BIOA01 Chapter 2 notes

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Biological Sciences
Mary Olaveson

BIOA01 Chapter 2Origins of Life Seven Characterizes that All Forms of Life Share 1 Display orderAll forms of life are arranged in a highly ordered manner with the cell being the fundamental of life2 Harness and utilize energyAll forms of life acquire energy from the environment and use it to maintain their highly ordered state 3 ReproduceAll organisms have the ability to make more of their own kind Example cells dividing4 Respond to StimuliOrganisms can make adjustments to their structure function and behaviour in response to changes to the external environmentExample plant can adjust the size of the pore of leaf surface to regulate gas exchange 5 Exhibit HomeostasisOrganisms are able to regulate their internal environment such that conditions remain relatively constantExample sweating is a way the body attempts to remove heat to maintain constant temperature 6 Growth and Development All organisms increase their size by increasing the size andor number of cells Many organisms also change overtime7 Evolve Populations of living organisms change over the course of generation to become better adapted to their environment Cell Theory 1 All organisms are composed of one or more cells Some types of organism eg prokaryotes are composed of only a single cell In these unicellular organisms the one cell is a functionally independent organism capable of carrying out all life activitiesIn complex multicellular organisms major life activities are divided among varying numbers of specialized cells These specialized cells are potentially capable of surviving by themselves if placed in a chemical medium that can sustain them2 The cell is the smallest unit that has the properties of life If cells are broken open they property of life is lost they are unable to grow reproduce or respond to outside stimuli in a coordinated potentially independent fashion 3 Cell arise only from the growth and division of preexisting cells Although DNA and RNA contain the information required to manufacture a vast array of biological molecules they cannot orchestrate the formation of an entire cellNew cells can arise only from the division of preexisting cells
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