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BIOA02H3 (153)
Chapter 55

Chapter 55 Study Guide

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences

Chapter 55 Community Ecology Host sweet host -floral nectar attracts pollinators, animals that plant relies on in order to reproduce -extrafloral nectars are grown on their non-reproductive (vegetative parts) to attract ants to find food and nesting sites -ants patrol plants and attack herbivores, pathogens and competing plants -mutualism exists between host plant and ant species -ant-hosting plants depend on a single ant species -plants ensure attraction of the right host species by controlling the composition of nectars 55.1 What Are Ecological Communities? -community is the area where species live and interact with other biotic and abiotic factors Communities are loose assemblages of species 2 theories about nature of communities 1. Communities are loose assemblages of species -each species was individually distributed according to its unique interactions with physical environment 2. Communities are tightly integrated -communities in similar environments would have the same species composition unless they had been recently disturbed -different combinations of plant species are found at different locations -species enter and drop out of communities independently over environmental gradients -first theory is supported -ecological communities are not assemblages of organisms if species move together as units when environmental conditions change -each species has unique interactions with its biotic and abiotic environments The organisms in a community use diverse sources of energy -trophic level consists organisms whose energy source has passed through the same number of steps to reach them -autotrophs get energy directly from sunlight -consist a trophic level called photosynthesizers primary producers -produce energy-rich organic molecules that other organisms consume -heterotrophs consume energy from autotrophs -herbivores (primary consumers) eat plants -secondary consumers eat herbivores -tertiary consumers eat secondary consumers -detritivores (decomposers) eat dead bodies of organisms waste products -omnivores obtain food from more than one trophic level -food chain is a sequence of interaction between trophic level of a set of organisms -food chain makes up food web that shows interaction of species in a community www.notesolution.com
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