Chapter 53: Behaviour and Behavioual Ecology -- KEY TERMS & DEFINITIONS

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Kamini Persaud

Key TermsChapter 53: Behaviour and Behavioural Ecology 53.1-What questions do biologists ask about behaviour? ethology: the study of animal behaviour from an evolutionary perspective most behaviours result from complex interactions between inherited anatomical and physiological mechanisms and the ability to modify behaviour as a result of experience 53.2-How do genes and environment interact to shape behaviour? Genes do not encode behaviours. Gene products such as enzymes can affect behaviour by setting in motion a series of gene-environment interactions that underlie the development of proximate mechanisms that enable individuals to make certain behavioural responses. Two experiments in evaluating how genes and experience interact to shape behaviours: o Deprivation experimentinvestigators rear a young animal so that it is deprived of all experience relevant to the behaviour under study. If it still exhibits the behaviour, we may assume that the behaviour can develop without opportunities to learn it o Genetic experiment investigators alter the genomes of organisms by interbreeding closely related species, or by knocking out or inserting specific genes to determine how these manipulations affect their behaviour (known as fosB knockouts). Selective breeding m: eans of genetic manipulationhas been used extensively to select for both anatomical traits and behaviour. Releaser:an object, event, or condition required to elicit a behaviour o The response of the animal to a releaser may be mechanical or chemical o Depends on the motivational state of the animal Genetic control of behaviour is adaptive under many conditions Critical period:a specific time in which the some types of learning take place only at a specific time in the animals development.
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