Chapter 55: Community Ecology

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Kamini Persaud

Sanchika Kanagalingam April 12 2011 Biology II Chapter 55: Community Ecology individuals of different species that live in a given area o it was thought that communities only have one species, but that is not the fact the area that you a whole bunch of species is what forms a community categories species within a certain community is through o how they get energy autotrophic- harness energy form only the sun heterotrophy- cant harness energy form the sun, eat other to get energy o map relationships between species on who eats who, Food chain a food web is map relationship where the animal eats more than one item can have infinite number of communities o organisms in a ocean o in a forest o grass land they all tend to have in common is level of tropic level o all tend to have 5 tropic level o when energy is passed through eating, you are not getting all the energy that the plant got from the sun o energy is lost between tropic levels o a pattern most of it is held at the autotroph ic stage (primary producers) as you go up the tropic level less energy is harnessed , due to the loss same pattern in each community just the distribution is different for each depending on what the species are eg. Forest primary producers tend to be tree bark, which primary consumers cant get at that energy so the majority of energy is at the autotrophic level and much less at the heterotrophic level eg. Grass land energy is not held in trees but instead in grasses, which are grazed you see the same pattern but different distribution in grassland the second tropic level would get more energy transfer and the second trophic level in the forest land would have less energy transfer biomass is the total mass of the organic materials, tends to correspond with energy o also a way to represent energy flow or where there is energy flow o most of the biomass be held in the primary producer level and less in the primary consumer level and more less in the secondary consumer level o one exception is the ocean here there is less biomass in the primary producer level and more in the primary consumer level
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