Biology part 2 book notes.docx

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Biological Sciences
Patrick Hall

Biology part 2 book notes Chapter 31 311All animals are multicellularAll animals are heterotrophsAnimals use internal processes to break down the materials from their environment ingestion and digestion which differs them from plantsAnimals have specialized muscle tissues that allow them to move and many animals body plans are specialized for movementAnimals share the same gene sequence with their ancestorsAnimals display similarities in the organization and function of their hox genesAnimals have unique types of junctions between their cells tight junctions desmosomes and gap junctionsAnimals have a common set of extracellular matrix molecules including collagen and proteoglycansCleavageFirst few cell divisions of a zygoteDiploblastic2 cell layers ectoderm and an inner endodermTriploblastic3 cell layers ectoderm mesoderm and endodermProtostomesmouth arises from the blastopore the anus forms laterDeuterostomesBlastopore becomes the anus the mouth forms later 312Body planArrangement of an animals organ systems and the integrated functioning of its partsKey features of a body planSymmetry of the bodyStructure of the body cavitySegmentation of the bodyExternal appendages that move the bodySymmetrySpherical symmetryBody parts radiate out from a central point mostly found among unicellular protistsRadial symmetryThings like a cylinder no matter what way u cut it you get a mirror image like jellyfish and hydraBilateral symmetry is a characteristic of animals that move in one direction A bilaterally symmetrical animal can be divided into mirrorimage left and right halves by a single plane that passes through the midline of its body This plane runs from the tip or anterior of the body to its tail or posteriorCephalizationformation of a head containing a brainBody cavityMembranelined fluid filled compartment that lies between the cell layers of many animalsAcoelomate animalsAnimals such as flatworms which lack a body cavityPseudocoelomate animals Have a body cavity called a pseudocoel a fluidfilled space in which many of the internal organs are suspended A pseudocoel is enclosed by muscles mesoderm only on its outside there is no inner layer of mesoderm surrounding internal organsCoelomate animalsHave a coelom a body cavity that develops within the mesoderm it is lined with a layer of muscle tissue called the peritoneum which also surrounds the internal organsBody cavities of many animals function as hydrostatic skeletons the incompressible internal liquids of some animals that transfer forces from one part of the body to another when acted upon by the surrounding musclesSegmentationBody divided into segments Segmentation facilitates specialization of diff body regionsAllows alteration of body in complex way to control its movements precisely 315BilateriaLarge monophyletic group embracing all animals other than sponges ctenophore and cnidariansMonophyleticReferring to a group that consists of an ancestor and all its descendants
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