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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Catherine Nash

Sept 15th 2011BIOB30Chapter 8 NeuronsCellular and Network PropertiesDefinitionsnervous systema network of trillions of nerve cell linked together in a highly organized manner to form the rapid control system of the body neuronsuniquely shaped cells that have long thin extensions that carry electrical signals rapidly and sometimes over long distances and release chemical signals called neurotransmitters into the extracellular fluid interneuronsneurons that lie entirely within the CNSvaricositiesenlarged regions along the axon of some neurons in the autonomic divisionsensory nervescarry only afferent signals motor nervescarry only efferent signals mixed nervescarry signals in both directions ganglioncluster of nerve cell bodies found outside the CNSmicrogliaspecialized immune cells in the CNA that remove damaged cells and foreign invadersastrocyteshighly branched cells that contact neurons and blood vessels and may transfer nutrients between the two and maintain homeostasis in the ECF around CNS neurons by taking up K and neurotransmitters from the ECF communicate with one another through gap junctionsependymal cellsspecialized cells that create a selectively permeable epithelial layer ependyma that separates the fluid compartments of the CNS It is also the source of neural stem cells channel conductancethe ease with which ions pass through a channel currentthe electrical charge carried by an ion channelpathiesinherited diseases caused by mutations in ion channel proteins Organization of the Nervous SystemThe nervous system is divided into two parts1CNSconsists of the brain and the spinal cord used for integration of neuronal reflexes 2PNSconsists of afferent sensory neurons and efferent neurons sensory receptors throughout the body continuously monitor the internal and external environments and send information along the afferent neurons through the PNS to the CNS which creates output signals directing an appropriate response to travel through the efferent neurons to the effector cells of the body muscles There are two types of efferent neurons1somatic motor divisioncontrol skeletal muscles2autonomic division visceral nervous systemcontrols smooth and cardiac muscles exocrine glands some endocrine glands and some types of
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