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Ch 13 textbook notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Jamie Donaldson

CHAPTER 13 CHEMICAL KINETICS132 The Rate of a Chemical ReactionRate of chemical rxn indicates how fast a rxn isFast ratemore molecules react to form molecules in given period of timeCan be defined as negative of change in concentration of reactant divided by change in timeits negative bc reactantdecrease as rxn occursbut overall rate sign should be positiveRemember stoichiometric coefficients if you are stating it in terms of change in products For most rxns the rate depends onof reactantsas reactants become products reactants s decreaseand rxn slows downRate1a At1dDtWhere a and d are stoichiometric coefficientsA is reactantD is productMeasuring Reaction RatesMost common way to study kinetics rates of rxn is through spectroscopyChemicals have a colour to themselves ie purple for reactant I2A spectrometer passes light through a samplemeasures how strongly the light is absorbedIf the sample contains I2 the light absorption should decrease as time progressesPressure can be monitored in which the reactants products are gasesincrease in moles of gas formed increase in pressurerise in pressure used to determine relativeof reactantsproducts over timePolarimetryfor sucrose polarized light rotates clockwisefor products polarized light rotates counterclockwisemeasure degree of polarization of light passing through can help determine relative s of reactantsproducts over timeFor slow rxns you can take aliquots from reaction vessel and determine rate of rxn via gas chromatography mass spectrometry wet chemical techniques ie titrationaliquots are taken at regular time intervals133 The Rate Law The Effect of Concentration on Reaction RatenRatek Athis is when backward rxn of products turning into reactants is very slowN is reaction order k is rate constantn determines how rate depends on concentration of reactantsN0zero order rxnrate indep ofof A horizontal line in a graph ofvs RateN1first orderrate directly proportional to A straight diagonal lineN2second orderrate proportionally to squareexponentialZero order reactionOccur under conditions where amount of reactant available for rxn is unaffected by changes in overall quantity of reactant
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