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Chemistry (256)
CHMB62H3 (7)
Chapter 1

Chapter 1 & Chapter 2.docx

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John Glover

Chapter 1 (1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4) 1.1  Oxygen, Hydrogen and Carbon make up 98% of the atom in an organism o O and H are so common due to the abondance of waer o C bond are strong and thus a lot of energy is released providing fuel 1.2  Biological molecules can be divided into 4 classes – (1) Proteins (2) Nucleic Acids (3) Lipids (4) Carbohydrates  Proteins (versatile) o Constructed from 20 building blocks (amino acids- which are linked by peptide bonds to form long polymers) o Signaling molecules and receptors o Allow mobility and provide defenses aginst enviromental dangers o Catalysts- enchance the rate of chemical reaction (enzymes)  Nuclecic Acids (Information molecule) o Store and transfer information o Constructed of 4 building blocks (nuleotides- made up of a 5 carbon sugar attached to a heterocyclicring structure called a base and at least one phophoryl group) o Two types deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) o DNA  Constructed from 4 deoxyribinucleotides – (1)Adenine (A) (2) Cytosine (C) (3) Guanine (G) (4) Thymine (T)  Exist in a double bond helix  Baseinteract with one another – A and T and C and G o RNA  Single strand  Disposable formof nucliec acid  Template for protein synthesis  The base tymine (T) is replaces with the base uridini (U) and contains an addition hydroxyl (-OH) group o Lipids (store of Fuel)  Part hydrophilic (likes water) and part hydrophobic (doesn’t like water)  Dual nature allow it to form barriers or membranes o Carbohydrates (fuels and informational molecules)  Most common is glucose  Stored in animals as glycogen and in plants as starch 1.3  Dentral Dogma o Information flows forn DNA to RNA and then to proteins o DNA can be replicated  DNA contributes to heritable information (the genome) packed into discrete units called genes  When DNA is copyed the newly formed daughter cell has identical genomes  The process of copy is called replication performed by a a group of enzymes called the DNA polymerase  Transcription converts DNA into RNA performed but the enzymes RNA polymerase  Translation (translated from nuleic acid to protein) takes place on the ribosomes 1.4  Every cell is seperated from the enviroment by a membrane (lipid bilayer- two layers of lipidswith their hydrophobic chains interacting with one another and their hydrophilic heads groups interacting with the environment)  2 basic types of cells o Eukaryotic  Membrane enclosed compartment o Prokaryotic  Nucleus
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