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Economics for Management Studies
Gordon Cleveland

Principles of Scientific Research21The Five Characteristics of Quality Scientific Research1The Measurements have to be objective valid and reliableIn order to conduct scientific research we have to use objective measurments meaning that the resusts should be consistant across different tools and observers In other words scientists should be able to come up with the same results and test the results Variables refer to the object concept or event being studiedTypically psychologists use selfreporting in which responses are provided by the people who are being studied2Can be generalized3It uses techniques that reduce bias4It is made public5It can be replicateScientific Research Designs22Psychologists begin their research with a research question hypothesis To test their or hypothesis or answer their questions psychologists use a variety of methods called research designs which organize the study help make observations and helps us evaluate the resultsThere are different research designs available but all these designs have the following in commonVariables Object concept or event being studiedOperational Definitions Are the details that define the variables for the purpose of a studyData When scientists collect observations about the variables of interest the information they record is dataResearch Designs1Descriptive ResearchDescriptive research tries to present observations about the characteristics of the subjectDescriptive research is used to describe characteristics of a population or phenomenon being studied It is interested in addressing the appearance of behaviour duration or frequency its prevalence in a populationQuestionsoHow many words can the average twoyearold speakoHow many hours per week does the typical college student spend on homeworkoWhat proportion of the population will experience depressionUse Case studies naturalistic observation surveys questionnaires oCase Study Indepth report about the details of a specific caseoNaturalistic Observation Observe and record behaviour as it occurs in the subjects natural environmentoSurveys and Questionnaires Interviews phone surveys etc that measure attitudes opinions beliefs and abilities2Correlation ResearchWhen psychologists are doing descriptive research they usually collect information about one than one variable They may look for associations among variables whether the variables occur together in a pattern or if there is not patternTherefore correlational research involves measuring the degree of association between two or more variablesShown in a scatterplotoPositive or negativeoMagnitude or strength Measured in correlation coefficient Correlation coefficients range from 10 to 10 but the closer it is to the absolute vale of 1 the stronger the relationship3Experimental ResearchImproves on descriptive and correlational studiesUnlike a descriptive study an experiment is a study in which a treatment procedure or program is intentionally introduced and a result or outcome is observedTypesoExperimental Method Random assignment which mean dividing samples into two or more groupsConfounding variables are varaiables outside of the researchers control that might affect the resultsTermsDependent variables observation or measurement that is recorded during the experiment and is compared across all the groups and independent varaibles variable that the expriemetaer is in control of what they are changingExperimental group is the group in the expermiment being exposed to the independent variableControl group does not receive treatement and merely serves as a comparisonoQuasiExperimental MethodIn some cases you cannot randomly assign people into groupsIn QuasiExperimental the two or more groups are selected based on chracteristicsEthics in Psychological Research23The ethics of science first do no harmPsychologists are bound by a code of ethics that is detailed and demanding and requires that psychologists show respect for people for animals and for the truth
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