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Environment more than water, land, air sum of our surroundings; includes scientific, ethical, political,
economic, social relationships/institutions
Biotic living things animals, plants, forests, soils, people
Abiotic nonliving things continents, oceans, clouds, rivers, icecaps
Environment Canada to preserve Canada’s natural environment
Environmental science study of how the natural world works, how our environment affects us, and
how we affect our environment
Natural resources substances/energy sources needed for survival
Renewable natural resources sunlight, wind, wave energy (inexhaustible)
Resource management strategic decision making/planning to balance use of a resource with
protection & preservation
x Withdrawal from the stock with the rate of renewal or regeneration
Stock harvestable portion of the resource
Stock-and-flow resources renewable resources
Non-renewable natural resource (fossil fuels and mineral deposits) finite because it forms slower than
we use them not able to replenish within our lifetime
x Once an atom has been split to release its nuclear energy, it will never return to its original state;
once a species has become extinct, it will never return to life\
x Paleolithic (Old Stone Age) period fire & stoles as tools
x Neolithic period/Agricultural Revolution hunters and gatherers
x Industrial Revolution animal-powered agriculture, craftspeople, urban society, fossil fuels Æ
industrial pollution
x Medical-Technological Revolution advances in medicine & sanitation, communications, Green
Revolution Æ environmental challenges
x Population growth, patters and habits of resource consumption
I(influence) = P(population) x A(affluence) x T(technology)
Carrying capacity biological productivity of a system, ability of a system to support life
x Too many population will decline or collapse, or system will be altered, damaged, or depleted
Tragedy of the commons each individual withdraws whatever benefits are available from the common
property as quickly as possible, until the resource becomes overused and depleted.
x Private ownership can help
Ecological footprint express the environmental impact of an individual or a population amount of
biologically productive land and water required to provide raw materials for ones consumption & to
absorb/recycle the waste produced
x 39% more resources than compared to a sustainable basis (depleting 39% faster)
x Canadian = 7.6 hectares, 2-4 city blocks
Interdisciplinary field employs concepts and techniques from numerous disciplines and brings them
together takes specialized knowledge from different disciplines, consolidates it, synthesizes it,
and applies it in a broad context to society
x Differences in circumstances affects judgment
Environmentalism social movement dedicated to protecting the natural world by humans from
undesirable changes brought about by human choices
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