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Chapter 13

ENVIRONMENT: THE SCIENCE BEHIND THE STORIES W/MYENVIRONMENTPLACE Chapter 13 Reading

5 Pages
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Department
Environmental Science
Course Code
EESA01H3
Professor
Carl Mitchell

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Chapter 13: Atmospheric Science and Air Pollution
The atmosphere and weather
-atmosphere consists of roughly 78% nitrogen gas (N2) and 21% oxygen gas (O2)
-remaining 1% is composed of argon gas (Ar) and small concentrations of several other
gases
-permanent gases remain at stable concentrations and variable gases vary in concentration
from time to time or place to place as a result of natural processes or human activities
The atmosphere is layered
-there are four layers
-troposphere: bottommost layer that blankets Earths surface and provides us with air…
temperature drops
-tropopause: acts like a cap, limiting mixing b/w the troposphere and the layer above it,
the stratosphere
-stratosphere: extends from 11km to 50 km above sea level…temperature rises
-ozone layer: greatly reduces the amount og UV radiation that reaches Earths surface
-mesosphere: extends from 50 km and 80 km above sea level…temperature drops
-thermosphere: top layer that extends upward to an altitude of 500 kmtemp rises
Atmospheric properties include temperature, pressure, and humidity
-atmospheric pressure: the force per unit area produced by a column of air, also
decreases with altitude, b/c at higher altitudes fewer molecules are pulled down by gravity
-Relative humidity: the ratio of water vapour a given amount of air contains to the
maximum amount it could attain at a given temp
-Microclimate: the side of a hill that is sheltered from wind or direct sunlight can have a
www.notesolution.com
totally dif weather pattern, from the side facing into the wind or sunlight
Solar energy heats the atmosphere, helps create seasons, and causes air to circulate
-70 % is absorbed by atmosphere and surface
-Earth is tilted in its axis by 23.5o
-March equinox: equator faces sun directly, 12 hours of daylight and 12 hours of darkness
-December solstice: northern hemisphere tilts away from sun; winter begins in Northern
hemisphere; summer begins in Southern hemisphere
-September equinox: equator faces sun directly, 12 hours of daylight and 12 hours of
darkness
-June solstice: northern hemisphere tilts towards sun; summer begins in northern
hemisphere; winter begins in southern hemisphere
-Refer to figure 13.5 page 389
-Convection circulation: warm air, being less dense, rises and creates vertical currents
as air cools, it descends and become denser, replacing warm air that is rising
Air masses interact to produce weather
-Front: the boundary b/w air masses that differ in temp and moisture (and density)
-Warm front: warmer air rises over cooler air, causing light precipitation as moisture in
the warmer air condenses
-Cold front: colder air pushes beneath warmer air, and the warmer air rises, resulting in
condensation and heavy precipitation
-High-pressure system: contains air that movies outward away from a centre of high
pressure as it descends…bring fair weather
-Low-pressure system: air moves toward low atmospheric pressure at the centre of the
system and spirals upward…brings precipitation
-Temperature/thermal inversion: normal direction of temp change in inverted…refer to
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Description
Chapter 13: Atmospheric Science and Air Pollution The atmosphere and weather - atmosphere consists of roughly 78% nitrogen gas (N ) and 212 oxygen gas (O ) 2 - remaining 1% is composed of argon gas (Ar) and small concentrations of several other gases - permanent gases remain at stable concentrations and variable gases vary in concentration from time to time or place to place as a result of natural processes or human activities The atmosphere is layered - there are four layers - troposphere: bottommost layer that blankets Earths surface and provides us with air temperature drops - tropopause: acts like a cap, limiting mixing bw the troposphere and the layer above it, the stratosphere - stratosphere: extends from 11km to 50 km above sea leveltemperature rises - ozone layer: greatly reduces the amount og UV radiation that reaches Earths surface - mesosphere: extends from 50 km and 80 km above sea leveltemperature drops - thermosphere: top layer that extends upward to an altitude of 500 kmtemp rises Atmospheric properties include temperature, pressure, and humidity - atmospheric pressure: the force per unit area produced by a column of air, also decreases with altitude, bc at higher altitudes fewer molecules are pulled down by gravity - Relative humidity: the ratio of water vapour a given amount of air contains to the maximum amount it could attain at a given temp - Microclimate: the side of a hill that is sheltered from wind or direct sunlight can have a www.notesolution.com
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