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Environmental Science
Nick Eyles

EESA06 Textbook NotesChapter 1 Introduction to Physical Geology and the EnvironmentWhat is Geology Geologythe study of earth Moving Continents 11 William SmithFather of English Geology first to publish a geological map 12 William Loganfirst to systematically describe the geology of Canada Candian Crosssectiona hypothetical vertical slice thru the land13 Alfred Wegenertheory of continental drift in 1912 The Origin of Continents and Oceans Pangeacontinents has previously been clustered together in a large land mass14 J Tuzo Wilsonplate tectonics theory in the early 1970s CanadianTransform faultslargescale faults that offset the crust laterally but neither created nor destroyed material now recognized as a major plate boundary type Hot spotsactive volcanoes young volcanic islands stuck in the middle of the oceansVolcanic islands chains ex Hawaiian Islands resulted from a moving plate drifting over a stationary magma plume in the mantlesupport for plate tectonic theoryTime and Geology Deep timevastly greater amounts of time more than hours yearsMidocean ridgea giant mountain range that lies under the oceanEarth is estimated to be at least 455 Ga years old What do Geoscientists Do15 Exploration Geologistslooking for gold diamonds and other metals Geoscientistsexpand the scope and responsibilities of modern geologist into additional scientific fieldsGeochemistsworking in a ordered environment of the laboratory and use hightechnology equipment to analyze the chemistry of rocks or minerals Mineralogistsstudy minerals16 Petrologistsstudy the makeup of rocks and how they formGeophysicistsusing hightech equipment in the field using boats planes or satellites to learn more of the nature of the physical conditions on or under the Earths surfacePetroleumcoal geologistssearch for oil and gas and coalSeismologistsstudy how to measure and mitigate earthquake activityPaleontologiststudies the fossilized remains of ancient organisms Glacial Geologistsstudy landforms and sediments left behind by ice sheets glaciers Hydrogeologistsstudy and protect sediments that contain and transmit water 17 Environmental Geoscientistsfinding and managing drinking water dealing with a wide range of wastes ranging from radioactive waste to household municipal waste18 Engineering Geologistswork with the challenges of engineering structures that form part of the human landscape landscape stability problems19 Geomaticiancollect organize analyze and create images from any spatial and geographical data available in digital form What is the Scientific Method Scientific Methodthe process by which scientists first identify a problem then they select a methodology to collect data in order to help solve the problem then they analyze and interpret the information and come up with a hypothesis after several testform a theoryHypothesisa theoretical explanation where the geologist How did the Earth form Nebulaa cloud of gas and dust particles Bulbous coreflattened disccreated by gas and dust rotate and contractSun created from a nuclear fusion Planetsdust in the outer disc condensed to form rocks and metals that combined to form large rounded planets and Planetismalsmuch smaller irregularly shaped planets Accretionthe process of building large bodies of matter thru collisions and gravitational attractionTerrestrial planets ex Mercury Venus Earth Marsform close to the sun small dense rockyJovian planets ex Jupiter Saturn Uranus and Neptunelow density large further from sun What was the early earth like Differentiationprocess of zonation of different materials within a planetHeavier metals iron and nickel settle towards the center lighter metals silica and oxygen rise towards Earths surface110 Meteoritessmall solid particles of rock metal and or iceorbiting the Sun1iron rare but look unique easily foundiron mixed with small amount of nickel2 stonyironironnickel alloy and silicate minerals in about equal parts3 stony meteorites most common look like earths rockssilicate minerals plagioclase olivine pyroxene and may contain small amount of ironnickel alloyo 90 are Chondritescontain round silicate grains aka chondruleso 10 are Achondriteslack chondruleso Carbonaceous chondritescomposed mostly of serpentine or pyroxene and contain up to 5 organic materials believed to have same composition as the original material from which the solar system was formed o Achondritessimilar to terrestrial rocks in composition basalt and texture igneous rocks Internal Structure of the earth Corecomposed of iron alloy ironnickel silicon Mantlecomposed of FeMg silicates form a rock called peridotiteOuter crustcomposed of lighter rocks such as basalt and graniteo Basalta finegrained mafic igneous rock composed predominantly of ferromagnesian minerals and with lesser amounts of calcium rich plagioclase feldspar Lithosphere plateslarge pieces of crust and uppermost rigid mantle broken from mantle convection Asthenospherethe weak layer more mobile Formation of the Early AtmosphereOutgassingwater and gaseous elements released during volcanic eruptions Early Life FormsProkaryotes microorganisms earliest life forms preserved in the geological record Stromatolitesorganic structures grown by prokaryotes by trapping sedimentsWhat is the Earth SystemEarth Systema small part of the larger solar system but also has its own component parts or subsystems aka spheresinclude atmosphere gases hydrosphere waterbiosphereliving and geosphere rock or other inorganic Earth materials
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