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Chapter 4

Chapter 4 _ Security Part II _ Auditing Database Systems.docx

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Financial Accounting
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Chapter 4 – Security Part II – Auditing Database Systems Overview:  Operational problems re flat-file approach to data management  3 database models  Operational features and risk with centralized, partitioned, and replicated database models in a DDP Data management approaches  Two models: flat-file and database model  Flat-file o Data files that contain records with no structured relationships to other files o Promotes single-user view approach to data management, where end users own the data o Issues: data redundancy, data storage, data updating, currency of information, and task-data dependency  Storage: costs more money to store same data  Updating: instead of updating one, may need to update multiple  Currency: one user may have outdated information  Task-data dependency: people will need additional info if their needs change  Database approach o Resources are controlled by database management system (DBMS)  Knows which data elements each user is allowed access  Users sends request for data, DBMS validates authorization  Centralizes all information Key elements of the database environment  Database management system o 4 key objectives: program development, backup and recovery, database usage reporting (audit trail), database access (granting access)  Database definition language o Internal/physical view  Physical arrangement of records, linkage between files, structure of data records, sequence o Conceptual view  Database logically and abstractly o External view  The portion that a user is authorized to access  The database administrator (DBA) o Responsible for managing the database resource and to protect the integrity of the database o Functions: database planning, design, implementation, operation and maintenance, change and growth o Should keep database access authority and systems development separate o Data Dictionary: describes data elements in the database  Physical database o Data structures: allows records to be located, stored, and retrieved o Data organization: the way records are arranged (sequential or random) o Data access methods: technique to find and arrive at the information  Factors: speed, efficiency of storage space, transaction processing, protection of data loss, ease of data recovery, accommodation of growth  DBMS models o Database terminology  Data attribute/field: single item of data  Entity: database representation of an individual resource  Record type: data attributes grouped together  Database: set of record types  Associations: relations to other records  1-1 (employee-YTD earnings)  1-Many (customer-sales invoices)  M-Many (inventory-supplies) o Hierarchical  Parent-child linkage, aka navigational database since traversing of files have a pre-determined destination  Limitations: 1 child cannot have more than 1 parent (i.e. sales invoice  customer and sales associate)  Duplicating works, but creates data redundancy o Network  Similar to hierarchical but a child can have more than 1 parent o Rational Customer # Name Balance 1 Jay 100 2 Lee 200
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