HISA06H3 Chapter Notes -Malthusianism, Meiji Restoration, Korean Wave

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22 Apr 2012
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Early stages of modernity:
Modernity typically refers to post traditional
Refers to the intellectual culture
Includes the rise of capitalism
In this course we look at 4 themes of modern societies: 1) Medicine, 2) popular
culture, 3) Gender and Women politics, and 4) visual culture and technology.
Through medicine we see Asian societies transition into modernization. There were
a wide variety of Patent medicines that were part of the Japan medical culture, like
Jintan and Chujoto that used advertisement techniques to successfully market their
products. During the early modern period, (19C) there was a rise of a new culture
of advertising that was propelled by creativity. New forms of print media emerged
like 1860 newspaper, 1870 magazines, printing press replaced woodblocks,
advertisement newspapers and large billboards. These ads were designed to
entertain and amuse. They made use of images (from popular artists) and were
dense with text that provided description of the drugs, symptoms, testimonials and
slogans (also written by popular fiction writers). They also made use of trademarks
and made larger signs. During the Meiji period, the goal was improve the health of
its citizens and this led to a modern medical and public heath system. A healthy
population was good for the nation (against European imperialism). Health became
a nation requirement. Meiji promoted Western medicine over traditional forms of
medical practice. They also came up with Rules and Regulations for the Patent
drugs: inspecting the formulas and seeing if it was given the right price and forbid
references to deities. They also placed taxes on the patent medicine industry, to
reduce illegitimate forms of health care and to promote new state-authorized
medical system. Lastly, they connected the products to a particular way of life.
(Chujoto good wife, good mother slogan) (Jintant culture of imperialism > nation
progress) (Dokumetsu changed the view of sexual disease..offered safe and
effective cure and encouraged sexual misbehavior. It got rid of the stigma attached
to it.)
Popular culture: Sports particularly in Taiwan mimicked Western strategies. Gave
praise to Western teams and let them win games in order to receive their
equipment. The state promoted physical culture in their attempts to nurture a
strong and healthy chinese population > key to building modern nationalism. In
Tournaments, lots of money was spent.
Modernization was also seen through the modern girl and Café waitress,
particularly in Japan. The modern girl was considered independent, sexually
liberated and resembled Western girls (especially in terms of fashion). The café
waitress were impoverished sexual commodities but at the same time also
celebrated their own sexual desires. They would serve food and drinks, and strike
eroticized conversations with their customers. In the modern years, café waitresses
used gimmicks to attract customers, like the match service (customers paid for this
service ..lit a match and allowed the enjoy the pleasures of her beauty until it went
out)
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