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HLTC05H3 Chapter Notes -Zoonosis, Scrub Typhus, Epidemiological Transition


Department
Health Studies
Course Code
HLTC05H3
Professor
Rhan- Ju Song

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Evolutionary, historical and political economic perspectives on health and disease
Armelagos, 2005:
- William Stewart, a US surgeon testified before congress that eradication of infectious diseases was at hand and will
be wiped out soon. He claimed smallpox, bubonic plague and malaria were thigns of the past. He said it was only a
matter of time till other diseases would be eradicated.
- WHO issued a report in 2001 in which they showed that most of the death especially in third world countries were
due to parasitic and respiratory diseases now. Other deaths due to AIDS, tb and malaria.
- Stewart was unable to judge the potency that such parasitic pathogens and insects would cause more harm then
other diseases.
- Therefore it can be said that humans continue to cause ecological disturbances that inversly accelerate changes in
antibiotic and pesticide resistance, therefore causing death of millions of people.
- The trend of declining infectious diseases and rise of chronic diseases was seen as a result to the the increasing
health and economic developments.
- The changign pattern of disease was the basis of an epidemiological theory porposed by Abdul Omran in 1971. He
observed a change in disease patterns that caused a shift in trend from pathogenic diseases to man made diseases.
- His theory illustrated the role that polution and other by products of the industrial age played in the disease
proccess.
- Social stratification originally evolved as it brough benefits to emerging elites. Thsu these resources that brought
benefits to few came at the expense of many.
Macroparasitism:
- When organisms appropriate other as continuing sources of food and energy, this relationship is is known as
parasitism.
- Social stratification and within societies and between them is an evolutionary stratergy that we consider
macroparasitism.
- Parasitism original reffers to a human social relationship.
- According to oxford dictionary, parasitism is a relationship in which a wealthy patron would pay a person to dine
with and entertain him.
Epidemiological transition:
- According to armelagos and collegues, human populations have gone through an earlier epidemiological transition
and are currently going through a 3rd one.
- The shift from foraging to primary food production represented the first epidemiological transition.
- Domestication of plants and animals in the neolithic era caused increase in infectious diseases. Therefore increase in
populations, density, domestication of animals, cultivation and social stratification represented the second
epidemiological transtion.
- The second epidemiological transition was originally Omran’s conceptualization about disease pattern.
- Lastly, we are living in the third epidemiiological transition in which antibiotics are loosing their effectiveness. This
period is chracterized by the emergence of chronic diseases.
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