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HLTC05H3 Chapter Notes -Pulmonary Hemorrhage, Shortness Of Breath, Liberation Theology

Health Studies
Course Code
Rhan- Ju Song

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Farmer, 2005
-“literacy of suffering”always embedded in the context of medicine/policy.
-1991, International health devised a “human suffering index” examining several measures of human welfare ranging
from life expectancy to political freedom.
-In Haiti, life expectancy is less than 50 years. because as many as 2 of 10 infants die before their first birthday.
Eg: TB and AIDS are the leading causes of death among adults and children.
Eg: Diarrheal disease, measles, and tetanus ravage the undernourished.
- wages on coffee plantations is $0.07 to $0.15 a day.
-Kay, a community consisting of peasant farmers displaced by the construction of Haiti’s largest dam.
-In 1956, before the dam was built. People lived bountifully. However after the construction of the dam the people were
always flooded and were left with no electricity and water.
- In 1983, Farmer, 2005 worked in Central Plateau. AIDS was already widespread.
*Biography 1:
-Acephie Joseph, had sexual affairs with a middle class, middle-aged man.
got pregnant and later diagnosed with AIDS.
was stigmatized and left in deep poverty and died.
*Biography 2:
- Chouchou Louis, attended primary school for a couple of years but stopped when his mother died.
-Chouchou, later in his life was dumped in a ditch because he was overheard to be speaking against the militants during
Coup d’etat.
- Militants (attaches) released to the press that Chouchou was told to be stealing bananas.
-His proximate cause of death was pulmonary hemorrhage, given his respiratory difficulties and amount of blood
coughed up.
-Like Acephie’s case: young women/teenage girls because of poverty pushed them for voluntary sex activity and
unfavourable unions.
-Like Chouchou’s death: more than 3,000 Haitians were killed in Spet. 1991 Coup d’etat.
-Acephie and Chouchou stories were “modal suffering” because in Haiti AIDS and Political violence are the 2 leading
causes of death among young adults.
- afflictions are not caused by accidents but consequences of direct/indirect human agency.
- Social and economic forces helped shaped the AIDS epidemic
-both Acephie and Chouchou were victims of structural violence (Structured? Because it is historically and economically
- Structured violence constrain agency. Informants choices are limited by racism, sexism, political violence.
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