Textbook Notes (381,222)
CA (168,408)
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HLTC22H3 (102)
Anna Walsh (49)
Chapter 6

Chapter 6 notes

8 Pages
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Department
Health Studies
Course Code
HLTC22H3
Professor
Anna Walsh

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A&G: Ch 6 - Aging of the Internal Organ Systems.
This chapter discusses aging of the cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, and
renal/urinary systems. Normative age-related changes (i.e., changes common enough that
most older adults can expect to experience them) are examined, in addition to the
common diseases and malfunctions of the individual systems that can accelerate the
aging process.
Cardiovascular System
Basic Anatomy and Physiology
The cardiovascular system is the bodys main transportation system.
Sends supplies to the body while removing toxic waste
System composed of heart, blood vessels, blood
Arteries carry blood away from heart, veins carry blood to the heart
Blood is made of water, red and white blood cells, platelets, nutrients
Blood also carries electrocytes to balance acid/base level
Heart is enclosed in a fibrous sac called pericardium
Upper chambers of heart = atria, lower chambers = ventricles
Ventricles are thicker because they do the long distance pumping
O2 poor blood collected from right atrium
Flows to right ventricle and exchanges CO2 for O2
64% of blood is found in veins
Lub – when the atria close and ventricles contract
Dub – closure of valves between ventricles and large arteries
Nervous pump – sysem of valves consisting of tissue in vein wall forcing blood to
flow in one direction towards heart
Venous pumps wont work as well if you dont move...
Lactic acid
Age-Related Changes
Enlargement of heart mass with age
Slowing electrical activity of heart
By 75, only 10% of pacemaker cells remain
Bradycardia – abnormally slow pulse due to increased fat tissue around sinoatrial
node
Collagen causes large artiries to stiffen
Blood pressure usually rises
Capillaries become more narrow
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Disease-Related Processes
Hypertension
120/80 is best blood pressure
120 – systolic, 80 – diastolic
140/95 + is hyperstension
Systolic hypertension increases throughout life
Highly variable blood pressure is the rapid expansion and contraction of articles
Hypertension has a number of causes
oChanges in kidney function, obesity, hormonal changes, sensitivity to
sodium, genetic propensities
Diuretics control hypertension
Arteriosclerosis and Atherosclerosis
Thickening and loss of elasticity of arterial walls
Also leads to hypertension
Atherosclerosis is deposition of plaques inside the arterial wall
oAccounts for half of the mortality in Europe and north America
oFirst visible sign is fatty streak on the inner wall of artery
oArtery becomes narrower and narrower
Risk factors are being male, family history, smoking, diabetes, hypertension,
Treatment is dietary cholesterol and exercise and medication called statins
oStatins and Alzheimer’s disease...
Peripheral Vascular Disease
Arteries that carry blood to the legs and feet are partially or completely blocked
due to atherosclerosis
Pain, pale or bluish color to skin, lack of hair growth in these areas, weak pulse
Ulcerations and gangrene of lower extremities can result
Treatment is exercise
Stop smoking
Coronary Heart Disease
Results from antherscerlorisis
85% of deaths of 65+ is due to CHD
Occurs for men earlier than women
African Americans have higher death rate from European Americans until age 80,
than its the opposite
Risk factors are smoking, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, obesity, inactivity
Angina pectoris develops when demand for blood to hear muscle is greater than
what can be supplied
Angina pectoris is impeding symptom of heart attack
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CHD can lead to myocardial infarction (heart attack; MI)
oArtery in heart is blocked due to blood clot
oDamage to tissue occurs
oMedications given to thin the blood and control heartbeat rhythm
oBypass surgery and angioplasty
oCardiac rehabilitation
Heart Failure
Cessation of a heartbeat, with death imminent
Heart is no longer able to pump blood to meet the metabolic needs of the bodys
tissues
Left ventricle less able to pump blood out thru aorta and into arteries of body
Kidneys and lungs are affected
Symptoms are shortness of breath, fatigue, confusion, lethargy
Promoting Optimal Aging
There are a number of ways that diseases of the cardiovascular system can be
slowed or delayed and deceleration of these disease processes can lead to many
additional years of healthy life.
Changes in diet, stop smoking
Aerobic exercise, alleviating stress
Social support can help dramatically
Respiratory System
Basic Anatomy and Physiology
The primary function of the respiratory system is to transfer oxygen from the air
into the bloodstream and to remove carbon dioxide.
Inhaling causes chest muscles to contract
Exhale – they expand
Pleural lining surrounds outside lung tissue and ooutlines chest wall
oTwo linings dont touch each other
Air travels from nasal cavity to nasopharynx, trachea, bronchi and then to alveoli
and bronchioles
Lungs have most extensive capillary network surface of any organ in body
Nose warms and moisterizes the air
Cilia clear mucus
Medulla oblongata and pons in brain control rate of breathing
Respiratory rate governed by lung volume
When a person is resting quietly, this amount is called tidal volume
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Description
A&G: Ch 6 - Aging of the Internal Organ Systems. This chapter discusses aging of the cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, and renalurinary systems. Normative age-related changes (i.e., changes common enough that most older adults can expect to experience them) are examined, in addition to the common diseases and malfunctions of the individual systems that can accelerate the aging process. Cardiovascular System Basic Anatomy and Physiology The cardiovascular system is the bodys main transportation system. Sends supplies to the body while removing toxic waste System composed of heart, blood vessels, blood Arteries carry blood away from heart, veins carry blood to the heart Blood is made of water, red and white blood cells, platelets, nutrients Blood also carries electrocytes to balance acidbase level Heart is enclosed in a fibrous sac called pericardium Upper chambers of heart = atria, lower chambers = ventricles Ventricles are thicker because they do the long distance pumping O2 poor blood collected from right atrium Flows to right ventricle and exchanges CO2 for O2 64% of blood is found in veins Lub when the atria close and ventricles contract Dub closure of valves between ventricles and large arteries Nervous pump sysem of valves consisting of tissue in vein wall forcing blood to flow in one direction towards heart Venous pumps wont work as well if you dont move... Lactic acid Age-Related Changes Enlargement of heart mass with age Slowing electrical activity of heart By 75, only 10% of pacemaker cells remain Bradycardia abnormally slow pulse due to increased fat tissue around sinoatrial node Collagen causes large artiries to stiffen Blood pressure usually rises Capillaries become more narrow 1 www.notesolution.com
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