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HLTA02H3 (135)

Week 9 readings

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Health Studies
Toba Bryant

WEEK 9 Chapter 7: Gender, Race, and Health Inequalities- Ann Pederson & Dennis Rapheal Health grounded in context of mens and womens lives: it arises from roles we play, expectations we encounter and opportunities available to us based upon whether we are women or men, girls or boys Many Canadians disadvantaged as result of differences in income, power, age, sexual orientation, geographic location, disability andor race as result of experiences of violence, trauma, migration or colonization Gender and Health Key Concepts Sex: biological aspects of being male of female o Underlying physiological processes and anatomical features that are typically different in males and females Gender: social attributes commonly ascribed to people who are male of female o All societies organized in ways that reflect constructions of women and men as different kinds of people, with respective roles, responsibilities, opportunities, including access to resources and benefits o Is a relational concept that also involves relations between women and men including gender power Sex and gender interact to create health conditions, situations and problems unique to one sex or vary in terms of prevalence, severity, risk factors, interventions for women and men Health Status Statistics Canada: average life expectancy at birth in 1999 was 79 years, women at 81.7, men at 76.3 First Nations people living on and off reserve: women at 76.6, men at 68.9 Main causes of death among women and men in Canada: coronary heart disease, cancer, chronic lung disease o Analysis of potential years of life lost (PYLL) show larger number of PYLL attributable to accidents in men opposed to cancer for women Women report more frequent long-term disability and more chronic conditions than men, the higher mortality rate and lower life expectancy of men compared to women may have misinterpreted to mean that women enjoy superior health and not because of the higher prevalence of chronic conditions in women There is narrowing gender gap in longevity in industrialized countries mostly due to improvements in mens life expectancy 6 ways that sex and gender are important in shaping health and health care needs: o Sex-specific conditions For women: birth control, pregnancy, childbirth, menstruation, menopause, female infertility, cervical cancer screening Men: prostate and testicular cancer and other diseases of reproductive system, male infertility and related problems o There are conditions that are more prevalent among women or men Women: breast cancer, eating disorders, depression, self inflicted injuries Men: substance use, Schizophrenia, HIVAIDS o Conditions that appear to be sex-neutral such as heart disease, but signs, symptoms and treatments may be different for women and men o Womens gendered roles in society influence health Womens caregiving responsibilities and the demands of it www.notesolution.com
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