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Chapter 7

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Health Studies
Rhan- Ju Song

Chapter 7: Malaria, another Fever Plague  Malaria is a fever plague, and it has been said that this disease has killed more than half the people who have ever lived on this planet A Look Back  Symptoms: typically enlarged spleens, periodic fevers, headaches, chills, and fever  Malaria came to Europe from Africa via the Nile river  Hippocrates discussed two types of malaria: o One with recurrent fevers every third day (benign tertian( o One with recurrent fevers every fourth day (quartan)  The disease was so prevalent in the marshland in the Roman Republic it was called “ The Roman fever”  Malaria means “bad air”  Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran found within the red blood cells transparent globules containing brown-black malaria pigment and, mobile filaments emerging from clear spherical bodies called exflagellation  Anopheles is a brown mosquito which is the carrier for malaria  The causative agent for malaria is Bacillus Malariae The Disease Malaria  There are only four specific strands of Plasmodium that are specific to humans: o P. falciparum, P.vivax, P. ovale, and P.malariae are transmitted through the bite of an infected female anopheline mosquito when, during blood feeding, she injects sporozoites from her salivary glands o They travel via the bloodstream to the liver, where they enter the liver cells. The entire process takes only an hour. Within the liver cells, the parasite multiples asexually to produce 10,000 or more infective offspring, and they invade the erythrocytes. It is the asexual reproduction of parasites in red blood cells and their ultimate destruction with release of infectious offspring ( merozoites) that are responsible for this pathogenic disease  All of the pathology of malaria is due to parasite multiplication in erythrocytes  The primary attack of malaria begins with headache, fever, anorexia, malaise, and myalgia. This is followed by chills, fever m and sweating. There may be nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Aka the Great Imitator  Falciparum malaria accounts for 50% of all clinical malaria cases and is responsible for 95% of deaths Catching Malaria  Mosquito transmission is dependent on factors, including the incidence of infections in the human population, the suitability of the local anopheline population- density, breeding and biting habits, the availability of susceptible or nonimmune hosts, climatic conditions, and the local geographic and hydrogeogrpahic conditions that contribute to malaria breeding sites  Malaria can also be transmitted without mosquitoes. o Introduction of infected blood by a blood transfusion or through contaminated needles are two of the less common ways of “catching” malaria Malaria Today  In Africa, the most effic
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