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Chapter 5

Chapter 5 A Modern Plague, AIDS.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Health Studies

Chapter 5 A Modern Plague AIDS Page 89115 20101218According to World Health Organization WHO AIDS afflicts 15 million people and occurs both in developed and less developed countries In 1981 12 cases in US 1994 there were 400 000 cases now maybe more than 1 million casesWorldwide in 1992 it was estimated that 129M were infected Twelve years later3040M and 18M dead by AIDS Since 1999 15 000 new infections every dayA Look Back 90AIDS started in 1981 where around 10 000 were infected worldwide by the virus Human Immunodeficiency HIVIn 1981 Centers for Disease Control CDC started receiving higherof request for pentamidine a drug used to treat an unusual type of pneumonia PCP requests mainly from Dr Michael Gottlieb who saw more people with this disease caused by fungus Pneumocystis carinii At first he noticed that these were not people with the criteria for PCP instead they were young male and homosexual The appearance of a rare cancer of the skin and blood vessels that were signalled by a redpurple blotching of the skin called Kaposis sarcoma At that time the syndrome was called GRID Gayrelated Immune Deficiency In 1983 Robert Gallo identified the causative agentsHLTV III Human Lymphotropic Tcell Virus and LAV lymphadenopathy virus These two viruses were both the same and were named HIV and the disease it caused was named AIDS HIV is a virus spherical in shape resembling a 20sided soccer ball HIV can only be seen with the electron microscope Normal DNARNAprotein In the cause of HIV RNADNARNAprotein HIV has genetic material in RNA form and the machinery of the eukaryotic host cell copies only DNA so it must change it to DNA first This flow of information is the reverse of normal cells so therefore these viruses are called retroviruses HIV Discovered 92As Biologists explore nature of living things they ask three kinds of questions structural functional and evolutionary Roberto Gallo and Luc Montagnier identified the retrovirus responsible for the destruction of lymphocytes HIVUpon virus replication the host immune system was crippled leading to clinical syndrome of AIDS At first HIV had no treatment but George Hitchings and Gertrude Elion who had produced compounds against smallpox virus had helped in creating the antitumor compounds AZT azidothymididne was
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