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Chapter 13

Chapter 13 Tuberculosis

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Health Studies
Caroline Barakat

Aqdas Qasem Plagues and Peoples Tuberculosis (Text. Chpt.13, C.R. 1059-1065, 270-278) 2010-10-24 Textbook: Chapter 13 The Peoples Plague: Tuberculosis (275) - Consumption (what Tuberculosis was called) was characterized in an 1853 medical text as having the following features: nostalgia, depression, and excessive sexual indulgence. - Tuberculosis (TB) was given another name by the afflicted ones: The White Plague. - TB caused incessant coughing (made it almost impossible to eat and talk) and pain when breathing which caused weight loss and prevented walking, the pain that required opium and whisky to ameliorate. - By the time of death, individuals resembled a cadaver. - Consumptive decline was thought to be due to a hereditary predisposition or specific living habits (i.e. poverty, or sexual promiscuity). A Look Back (276) - Tuberculosis of the lungs (called pulmonary TB) is the form of the disease we are most familiar with, giving rise to the slang word lunger; in the United States the lung is the primary site of infection in 80-85% cases. - When localized to the lungs, TB can run an acute course, causing extensive destruction in a few months so-called galloping consumption. - TB can also wax and ane with period of remission (mistaken in some cases for chronic bronchitis with spitting of blood). - TB can affect organs other than the lungs as well, including the intestine and larynx; sometimes the lymph nodes in the neck, producing of swelling called scrofula. - TB can also produce fusion of vertebrae and deformation of the spine, called Potts disease hunchback, and may also affect skin and kidneys. -Microbes causing TB are called mycobacteria free living relatives inhabit the soil and water. - Mycobacteria have a protective cell wall. - Three types of mycobacteria: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. leprae, and M. avium, which are human pathodgen that respectively, cause TB leprosy, and a pulmonary disease with swollen glands in the neck. - M. avium is an opportunistic infection found in some AIDS people. M. tuberculosis is a parasite of cattle, M. bovis can affect people with difficulty, and is not associated with the lungs. M. tuberculosis grows best in high oxygen levels and is associated with pulmonary TB because lungs have high oxygen levels. - M. bovis is associated with TB of the spine, and results from a blood infection that spreads to the spine via lymph vessels. M. bovis first affected humans through milk. M. tuberculosis is specific to humans and spreads through droplets of saliva and mucus. - M. bovis and M. tuberculosis are more than 99.5% alike. - Evidence of TB is found in bony remains that predate human writing and Potts diseas had described in Egyptian mummies dating from 3700 B.C. - TB of the lungs is more recent than of the bones. - By this info, it is thought that M. tuberculosis evolved from M. bovis after cattle was domesticated. - Greek physician Hippocrates called the disease phthisis. - Hippocrates thought the disease was due to evil air and did not consider it contagious. - Aristotle suggested that it might be contagious and due to bad and heavy breath. - By them time of Galen, the theory of contagion of phthisis was accepted in Roman Empire, but the contagious agent could not be found. Page1 www.notesolution.com
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