- Epidemic diseases were virtually nonexistent, only those diseases with very
high transmission rates that induced little or no immunity , as well as
macroparasitic diseases that did not involve vectors for transmission and
sexually transmitted diseases were able to establish themselves in the small
groups of hunters-gatherers.
- except for some vector born diseases such as malaria and yellow fever may
have been present at this stage but it was only after human population
settled down and favored the emergence of epidemic diseases. (at the time
when we became farmers)
- agricultural revolution provided the driving force for the growth of cities
- urban life also enhanced the transmission of diseases through the air and
water, by direct contact, and by vectors such as snail, mosquitoes, and flies.
- the disease of antiquity were characterized by parasites with long-lived
transmission stages (eggs) as well as those involving person to person
- most diseases became established only when a persistent small number of
infectious individuals could be maintains
- when the disease became endemic, this require populations greater than a
few hundred thousand.
The Pharaohs' plague
- a disease that causes blood to appear in the urine (hematuria)
- hematuria was described by the fathers if Arabian medicine in his Canon
Medicine, but the condition, called aaa was recognized much earlier.
- Ebers Papyrus named after Georg Ebers.
- penis dripping fluid, and this too may be blood, but such sign was not
considered to be connected with disease, but to be a mark of puberty in the
- this condition was widespread
- figures of fisherman and barge and with enlarge abdomens, surely
representing the pathology of chronic snail fever or blood fluke disease
- Calified eggs of the blood fluke in the ki