HLTB02 Chapter 8.docx

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Department
Health Studies
Course
HLTC23H3
Professor
Caroline Barakat
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 8: Physical Growth in  Preschool Children  8.1: PHYSICAL G ROWTH Body Growth • Growth is stable during the preschool years • Older preschoolers have the body proportions of older children instead of the infant’s top-heavy look • Preschoolers lose baby fat o Muscles develop, more cartilage turns to bone o As bone becomes harder, it becomes more likely to break, not bend o Eg. a hard fall that would have only bruised a toddler is more likely to fracture an older child’s bone • First tooth does not appear until 6 to 10 months of age o Usually one of the lower front teeth • By 1 year, have 4 teeth, and by age 3, have all 20 primary teeth • From 3 to 6 years, tooth development remains stable • At about 5 or 6 years, children begin to lose primary teeth and permanent teeth begin to erupt Brain Development • Myelination important because it involves perception, motor skills, and memory o Could lead to better capacity in terms of memory and perceptual-motor coordination • Stronger connectivity between synapses has also been implicated in better working-memory-related brain activity in childhood • The more specialized the brain is, the less plasticity it has Sleep • Most GH is secreted when children are sleeping • 20-30% of preschool children have bedtime struggles o Reflect the absence of a regular bedtime routine that’s followed consistently o Good bedtime routine takes 15-45 minutes to complete o Prompting helps children be aware of and remember the routine until they have mastered it themselves  Should not rush through bedtime routine, it will make child more uptight and result in child having a hard time settling down to sleep easily o When child gets settled into bed, they want to talk  Bigger topics that aren’t an emergency should be discussed the next day o When children cry out or call for parents, should ignore them unless they think it concerns something that truly makes it hard for them to fall asleep  Do not reinforce child’s behaviour! o Occasional nightmares are normal, but persistent, repeated, or troubling nightmares may require professional intervention o Night terrors are when children wake in a panicked state, breathing rapidly and perspiring heavily  Not fully awake, will often not respond to the parent and typically go back to sleep quickly  Usually do not remember the episode the following morning  Usually occur early in the night and seem to be a by-product of waking too rapidly from a deep sleep  Rarely indicate any underlying problem in children o Sleepwalking  Only real danger
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