chapter 5.doc

10 Pages
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Department
Health Studies
Course Code
HLTC24H3
Professor
Anne- Emanuelle Birn

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Description
Introduction to health dataThe current proliferation of health program means the demand for reliable data is greater than everChallenges to health dataGlobal life expectancy in 2006 was estimated at 67 years with average life expectancy at both ranging from 40 years in Siena Leone to 83 in Japansummary statistics do not reflect variations within countries by social class geographic location occupation and other important factors iein Egypt the under5 mortality rate in 2005 was 7461000 live births amongst the poorest 20of the populationDespite increasing recognition of the influence of social political and economic factors on bothillness and death in most settings these variables are insufficiently captured by routine health statistics collectionMany variables that directly influence healthsuch as rainfal1 poI1ution living conditions and transportation do not typically qualify as health statistics although they may be vital in uncovering and addressing the multiple underlying causes of ill healthMuch of the data available is brought together by estimations and guestimationmost underdeveloped countries where the need for health and social services is acute and resources are perpetually inadequate the funds allocated for collection and analysis of data fall short of requirementsAssumptions Related to Health Datause of health statistics rests on two assumptions first that disease and death are medicalized processes that areor should becertified by trained medical practitioners and publicly recorded tabulated and gauged over time second that there is an agreedupon nosologya disease classification process universally applied by doctors through common diagnostic procedures Although the International Classification Diseases lCD has been revised and agreed upon at periodic international conferences since its development in the 18905 cultural and economic factors sometimes limit its adoption Even where allopathy is widely practiced political and economic circumstances often limit the distribution and affordability of health services in turn impeding the collection of health and mortality dataUSES AND LIMITATIONS OF Health DATAHealth data are commonly used health services planning detecting outbreaks and monitoring and complying with international health regulationsHealth statistics including the infant mortality rate cases of notifiable illnesses numbers and causes of deaths and certain health services such as immunization coverage together with a few socioeconomic geographic and other measures typically make up the raw material for various health policy decisionsHealth Services Planning and legislationStatistical data about health are also needed by branches of government at municipal regional and national levelsGouging Trends and NeedsA primary reason to track trends in population health status at the level of countries geographic regions and subpopulations such as particular age groups OI marginalized populations Local regional and national governments nongovernmental sponsors of health and welfare programs as well as insurance companies and other businesses employ health data to gauge the success and limitations of particular medical or health promotion interventions of social and economic policies writ large
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