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HLTD04H3 (42)

HLTB10- Ch 1

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Health Studies
Toba Bryant

HLTB10 Ch 1Theory an explanation of observed regularitiespatterns common components of a theory are as followsDefinitions specify what the keys terms in the theory mean Descriptions of the phenomena of interest Relational statements which connect 2 or more variables knowing the value of one variable conveys info about the otherrelational statements can be A Deterministic the 2 variables go together all of the time eg as the economy shrinks by 1 the arson rate increases by 5 B Probabilistic the 2 variables go together with some degree of regularity but the relsh is not one of inevitability Grand theories generally offer few direct indications of how to collect evidence to test them If someone were to try to test one the level of abstraction would make it hard to link the theory as a whole w the real world Theories of the middle range limited in scope and can be tested directly by gathering empirical evidence In the middle of grand theories and particularistic explanationsMore likely to be the focus of empirical inquiry Deductive method the researcher starts by coming up w a theory that seeks to explain a particular phenomenon and then deduces specific hypothesis f it that are tested w empirical dataTheoryObservationsFindingsInductive method where theory is the outcome of research the researcher begins not by coming up w a theory to be tested but by gathering and examining data relevant to the phenomenon being investigatedObservationsFindingsTheoryData are not gathered to test a theory but to come up w the info needed to construct a theoryafter theoretical reflection a researcher may want to collect more data to estb the condts in which the newly emerged theory does or doesnt hold this strategy is known as iterative it involves a weaving back and forth btwn data and theory Grounded theory is the practice of deriving theories f qualitative data Social researchers base their work on epistemological assumptions notions of what can be known and how knowledge can be acqd One concern in the social sciences is what should be regarded as acceptable knowledgecan the social world be studied according to the same principles and procedures as those in the natural sciencesPositivism an epistemological position that affirms the importance of following the natural sciences it entails the following 7Only phenomena and regularities confirmed by the senses sight and hearing can be accepted as knowledgethe principle of empiricismA key purpose of theory is to generate hypotheses that can be tested and allowed explanations of observed laws and principles to be assessed known as deduction Knowledge can also be arrivedthrough the gathering of facts that provide the basis for generalizations or lawsthe principle of induction
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