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HLTD04H3 (42)

HLTB10- Ch 2

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Health Studies
Toba Bryant

HLTB10 Ch 2Research design a framework that guides the collection and analysis of datait must satisfy certain criteria and the form it takes depends on the research questions being asked Quantitative researchers they explain phenomenon in terms of causes and effects expressed in terms of general laws and principles Such lawsprinciples are fairly general and are meant to apply to ppl who were not part of the studyEg a study may find that men are more likely to approve of porn than women and explain that w a Darwinian theory of erotic attractionthis explanation applies to humanity in general not just the ppl who participated in the studythis is a nomothetic approach to explanation Qualitative researchers they seek a rich description of a person or group although the description involves proximate specific causes that are not meant to explain other situations or the bhvr of ppl who were not part of the researchEg a group of homeless teens avoid sleeping in the local homeless shelter bc they value their privacy that finding is not meant to apply to other homeless ppl or others shelters it simply helps to explain why these particular teens act the way they dothese accounts are called idiographic explanationsMethods for collecting data include A preset instrument such as a selfcompletion questionnaire or structured interview scheduleParticipant observation where the researcher takes part in the activities of a group of ppl sometimes even living among them for a time Case study a detailed exploration of a specific case which could be a community organization person or event detailed and intensive analysis of a single case Case studies are often idiographic in nature seeking to provide a rich description of the subject matter Lack of external validity and Generalizabilityhow can a single case be representative of other cases Variable a characteristicattribute that varies such as gender income 3 Criterions for Evaluating Research Involving the Measurement of Variables 1 Reliability whether the same results would be received if a particular measurement technique were administered several times to the same research subjectIf different findings are produced when diff psychologists use the test on the same ppl that would mean the test is unreliable2 Replicability whether others are able to repeat part or all of a study and get the same results3 Validity concerned w the integrity honesty of the conclusions generated by a piece of researcha Measurementconstruct validity applies primarily to quantitative research and its measures of social concepts refers to whether an indicator really measures what its supposed to measureb Internal validity raises the issue of the degree of confidence one can have that the independent variable really does have an impact on the dependent variable
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