Idsb04 international health policy chapter 4 notes. Views health and illness at the individual level, with the body conceptualized as a machine with constituent"s parts that can be manipulated and repaired. This model is mainly curative but does have included preventive armamentarium/measures (such as vaccines, screening, and genetic testing. Views health and illness primarily as a consequence of the individuals or households actions/beliefs. Focuses on changing and regulating personal conduct and cultural attitudes through education, counseling, and incentives in order to achieve desirable health outcomes. Considers the political, social, cultural, and economic contexts in which disease and illness arise, and examines the ways in which societal structures interact with the particular conditions that lead to good/bad health. Many determinants: individual, household, community, workplace, social class, nation, and global/economic contexts. Female education is one of the main factors that are associated with mortality decline.