IDSA01 Chapter 5 Notes.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
International Development Studies
Leslie Chan

IDSA01 Introduction to International DevelopmentChapter 5Gender and Development The Struggles of Women in the Global South women have gone from being simply recipients of social assistance to objects to be integrated into development to indispensible actors in the quest to eradicate povertysix main theoretical approaches 1 the welfare approach 2 women in development WIB 3 women and development WAD 4 gender and development GAD 5 the effectiveness approach EA 6 mainstreaming gender equality MGE An Obstacle Courseout of the 12 billion people internationally living in extreme poverty subsisting on less than 1 per day 70 are women who are disadvantaged in terms of their access to property housing credit inheritance technology education health services and education jobsin terms of education 57 85 million of the total number of children who dont go to school are women and women dropout rates are higher especially in rural areasas a result of low levels of education and the lack of a sociopolitical and legal structure favouring the equality between the sexes women are relegated to unstable employment for which they are poorly remunerated increasing their financial and material dependence on men and exposing them to violence and sexual harassmentless wellnourished and cared for than boys girls are more susceptible to developing health problems and to tropical diseasesthe Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against women adopted by the UN General Assembly in 1993 is far from being actualizedin numerous countries of the Global South women are repressed by family honour codes and customary laws rendering them as second class citizens and in many other parts violence against women rape sexual abuse genital mutilation are normalized and blamed upon the victimthe extent and persistence of discrimination against women vary according to a complex system of power relations gender social class race or ethnicity age religion and sexual orientation etcboys and men also who do not conform to the dominant masculinities of their societies are also effected by patriarchal discrimination The Emergence of the Field Women Gender and Developmentgender distinguishes between biological sex physiological and biological characteristics from the associated notion of sex acquired sexual identities such as femininity and masculinitythe introduction of gender in the international development arena coincided with the mobilization of feminists in the Southgender was first used interchangeably with women in that men were not analyzed as part of the gender equation and as such gender has become more common in everyday language its meaning has stretched to include an increasingly vast range of sectors such as politics economics environment and health Social Assistancethe welfare approach that emerged in the 1950s to the 1970s was rooted in the context of decolonization and political independence of a number of African and Asian countries as well as modernization theoryin the South the formation of nationstates favoured the emergence of local elites who were more concerned with increasing their personal power than redistributing societal wealth while the American militaryindustrial complex was spreading its influence across the globeachieving the modernization objectives of economic growth and increased consumption required intense efforts to contain the demographic explosion of the developing countrieshaving underestimated the importance of local cultures and sociopolitical and economic modes of organization in the societies of the Global South and put in place population control initiatives targeting female reproduction
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