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International Development Studies
Anne- Emanuelle Birn

MZ Many countries have limited data collection and rely on what is collected from outside their }L}}]L}K]}LZ] Z}ZZZ}}o]}LZoZ Z^ZoZ o]}o]LZo]L2}]L]LZLZZZ}o]}LZ_~: Challenges of Health data o Not all deaths are recorded and sta]Z] Z}L}o ^]]}LZ]Z]L }L]Z Z} ]o oZZ72}2Z] o} ]}L7} ]}L_~ : o Social, environmental, political and economic factors are not included as health statistics nor are variables such as rainfall, pollution, living conditions and transportation which can also influence health o Ensuring the reliability of health statistic collection needs to be made a priority; but this is difficult particularly in developing countries where the need for health and social services is high and resources limited and thus funds for data collection are minimal. ^;Z]ZZ} L ]ZZ]2ZZ7ZLKZZoZZ}Z_~. Assumptions related to health data: ^]ZZLZK] o]} ZZZJ or should be J certified by trained medical practitioneZLo] o };:LQZ]ZL agreed-upon nosology J a disease classification process universally applied by doctors through }KK}L]2L}Z] } Z_~ o Conflict can arise where there are traditional healers who practice medicine based on local understanding of disease categories based on supernatural and spiritual things. Uses of health data: health services planning, detecting outbreaks, monitoring and complying with IH regulations, estimate budgets and future needs, for international sharing and comparison purposes o The primary use is to track trends in populations health status at different levels (it can be compared and used to evaluate the success or failure of programs and policies) o This has led to the development of health impact assessment (HIA) which deal with the health impact of public and private sector policies in arenas like zoning, transportation, labor, energy, education, etc Monitoring diseases and complying with international health regulations o According to the WHO constitution member states must report annually the actions take to improve the health of their people (laws, regulation, reports stats, etc) and notify the WHO cases and outbreak of certain disease. The International Sanitary Regulations were established by WHO in 1951 and later expanded under the IHR - International Health Regulation (?) in 1969. With the reemergence of the plague, cholera and SARS IHR was amended to so the WHO had to notified in 24hours in the event of any occurrence that constitutes of a public health emergency; that is anything that poses a health risk to other states and requires a coordinated international response Limitations of Health Data
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